International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences (IJAAS), p-ISSN 2252-8814, e-ISSN 2722-2594, is a peer-reviewed and open access journal dedicated to publish significant research findings in the field of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Information Technology. The journal is designed to serve researchers, developers, professionals, graduate students and others interested in state-of-the art research activities in applied science, engineering and information technology areas, which cover topics including: applied physics; applied chemistry; applied biology; environmental and earth sciences; electrical & electronic engineering; instrumentation & control; telecommunications & computer science; industrial engineering; materials & manufacturing; mechanical, mechatronics & civil engineering; food, chemical & agricultural engineering; and acoustic & music engineering.
Laila M. Farag,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 1: March 2012 , pp. 35-44
The present article deals with evaluation of energy and exergy efficiences of an Egyptian dry process cement kiln plant with precalciner characterized by that the whole kiln gas is diverted through by pass . Such diversion is necessary to break the intense cycles of secondary constituents Cl, alkalis and sulfur that may arise between precaciner -preheater and kiln due to the high content of the raw materials of such secondary constituents. Based on average actual operation data of the process, energy and exergy balances have been established around the preheater-precalciner, the rotary kiln , the rotary cooler and the whole process. Energetic- and exergetic efficiency of the process attains 40% and 25.7% respectively . Sum of the exergy outputs attains about 49% of total exergy input and irreversibility loss = 2354 kJ/kg clinker which represents about 51 % of total exergy input. Energy and exergy of the by pass gases are the largest output loss items ( ~770 and 416 kJ/kg cli respectively) followed by those of the preheater exit gases (~ 622 and 152 kJ/kg cli respectively). For comparative purpose , the process was evaluated with considering no diversion of kiln gas through by pass . Energetic- and exergetic efficiency has been estimated in this case as 52% and 34 % respectively and the irreversibility attains 1840 kJ/kg clinker which represents about 52 % of total exergy input.
Majid Mohammed Ali Kadhim,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 1: March 2012 , pp. 11-18
This paper presents the behavior of axially loaded flat steel plates strengthened using carbon fiber reinforced polymer sheets. Two steel plates were joined together with adhesive and followed by the application of carbon fiber sheet double strap joint with different bond lengths. The effective length of CFRP sheet has been study by using commercially available finite element analysis software ANSYS V12.1. A parametric study has been performed by numerical modeling with the variables of CFRP sheet thickness, adhesive layer thickness, steel plate thickness and number of CFRP sheet layer.
Sumit Goyal, Gyanendra Kumar Goyal,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 1: March 2012 , pp. 29-34
Feedforward multilayer machine learning models were developed to predict the shelf life of burfi stored at 30oC. Experimental data of the product relating to moisture, titratable acidity, free fatty acids, tyrosine, and peroxide value were input variables, and the overall acceptability score was the output. Bayesian regularization algorithm was used for training the network. The transfer function for hidden layers was tangent sigmoid, and for the output layer it was purelinear function. The network was trained with 100 epochs, and neurons in each hidden layers varied from 3:3 to 20:20. Excellent agreement was found between the actual and predicted values establishing that feedforward multilayer machine learning models are efficient in predicting the shelf life of burfi.
Aftab Hameed Memon, Ismail Abdul Rahman, Ade Asmi Abdul Azis,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 1: March 2012 , pp. 45-52
Time and cost performance is the fundamental criteria for success of any project. Unfortunately construction industry in Malaysia has been regarded as industry facing poor performance leading to failure in achieving effective time and cost performance. As a consequence most of the project face huge amount of time and cost overrun. This study assessed the time and cost performance of construction projects in Malaysia using structured questionnaire survey. The findings of study revealed that 92% of construction projects were overrun and only 8% of project could achieve completion within contract duration. The amount of time overrun was in between 5-10% as agreed by respondents. In terms of cost performance only 11% of respondents mentioned that normally their projects are finished within the budgeted cost while 89% of respondents agreed that their projects were facing the problem of cost overrun with average overrun at 5-10% of contract price. The major contributors of this poor performance include design and documentation issues, financial resource management and project management and contract administration issues. Further, qualitative study was carried out using semi-structured interviews with the experience personnel involving in managing construction project which resulted in developing 13 mitigation measure to improve time performance and 15 mitigation measure to improve cost performance in construction project. This study will help the practitioners to implement the mitigation measure at planning stage in order to achieve successful construction projects.
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 1: March 2012 , pp. 19-28
The paper examined the radiation effect on unsteady MHD free convection heat and mass transfer flow on a viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting fluid past a vertical permeable moving plate with radiation. The non-linear partial differential equations governing the flow have been solved numerically using finite element method. Graphical results for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles have been obtained, to show the effects of different parameters entering in the problem. Such flow problems are important in many processes, in which there is combined heat and mass transfer with radiation. It has been observed that the velocity increase with the increase in the radiation parameter and there is a increase in temperature with the increase in the value of radiation parameter.Keywords: Heat and Mass transfer, MHD, Radiation, FEM
Ali A Mohammed,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 2: June 2012 , pp. 77-84
The research assessed and examined the mechanical properties of the Soil Cement Interlocking brick (SCI) to provide the information for the possible and appropriate development and revision of the (SCI) brick due to the substantial benefits which can be obtained by improving these sorts of bricks .Therefore, drastic efforts and accurate attention were paid precisely on the laboratory tests .Some of the laboratory investigation on (SCI) bricks were conducted in conjunction with the use of various masonry standards to evaluate the Compressive Strength , Dimensional Tolerance ,Water Absorption , Initial Rate of Suction and Modulus of Rapture. Results illustrated that the water absorption for (SCI) brick ranged from (13.566% -17.045%) ,the Initial Rate of Suction ranged from (1.746-3.573) kg/m2 ,the compressive strength on the other hand fell in range between (7.733-12.33)N/mm2 for (SCI)bricks without mortar, whereas the compressive strength for (SCI)bricks filled with mortar ranged from (12.406-15.098)N\mm2 and Modulus of Rapture was found to be to ranged between (0.004-0.023)Pa for (SCI) bricks without mortar ,whereas, Modulus of Rapture for (SCI)bricks filled with mortar was (0.004-0.017) Pa .The study revealed a good quality that can be produced from soil and cement by pressing method whereby contributing to sustainable development .
Mehdi Rahimi, Hossein Farahbakhsh, Nasrin Salehi,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 2: June 2012 , pp. 91-100
One of the most ubiquitous challenges of the scientists is the theoretical evaluation of experimental parameters to validate and improve their ability. Plant essential oils and their extracts have been greatly employed in folk medicine, food flavoring, fragrance and pharmaceutical industries. This work is a part of our comprehensive investigation to correlate the experimental and calculated retention indices (RI) of the some organic compounds from K. Javidnia et al. The structures of all organic compounds were drawn into the HYPERCHEM program and optimized using semi-empirical AM1 method, applying a gradient limit of 0.01 kcal/Å as a stopping criterion for optimized structures prior to geometry optimization step. Then molecular descriptors were calculated for each compound by the DRAGON software on the minimal energy conformations. The Stepwise SPSS was used for the selection of the variables that resulted in the best fitted models. By molecular modeling and calculation of descriptors, four significant descriptors (XMOD, PCD, MATS2e, GATS2e) related to the retention indices values of the essential oils, were identified. After the variables selection, the MLR method used for building the regression models. The statistical figures obtained by the proposed model are R2=0.989, RMSEP=53.08, REP =3.83 and SEP =54.94. In the final step, models generated were used to predict the retention index for a set of test compounds.
Ali Soltani, Andrew Allan,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 2: June 2012 , pp. 71-76
In order to reduce traffic congestion and the associated problems, various policies have been put forward so far. In this way, it is believed that Transport Demand Management (TDM) offers an effective and economical solution. Since most TDM policies have both positive and negative impacts, public participation is, therefore, an efficient way to achieve better results. This paper attempts to evaluate a set of TDM policies and define their priorities through a Bottom-up Planning (BUP) approach for the metropolitan Shiraz, Iran. In this way, the possibility of developing common principles via the investigation of shared goals within an integrated framework for urban transport policies that are desired for sustainable transport is evaluated. The framework method was utilized through a BUP expert consultation process. A number of experts (n=21) were asked to prioritize the components of each policy package. A set of policy measures as solutions to traffic congestion was provided in three different categories: sustainable transport approach, engineering approach, and traffic restraint approach. Each category included 10 measures which were suggested after a primary survey on the metropolitan's traffic problems. These measures were weighted and rated using the Analytical Hierarchal Process (AHP) technique. Then the Weighted Scoring Method was applied to find performance priorities. Public bus and bicycle infrastructure development were found to be the two most favorite policies. In total, sustainable transport solutions were the most preferred policies in the bottom-up stages. The findings can contribute some insights to future transport planning in order to provide more opportunities for community involvement in planning processes.
Ching Yee Yong, Kim Mey Chew, Rubita Sudirman, Nasrul Humaimi Mahmood,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 2: June 2012 , pp. 85-90
The research of this paper is to investigate does distance will affecting the walking activity and the pattern for classification. This paper built a comprehensive picture of the human walking activity, programming language, workflow of the tool, features extraction and patterns classification method and captured the attitudes of the respondents. The subject was performed a range of walking activity in a controlled laboratory setting. The result of this study shows that the moderating effects of walking distance explains 15.80% (Gyroscope), 74.60% (Accelerometer) and 98.60% (Compass) of variance in research output. The result is expected to be beneficial and able to assist researchers and medical officers in analyzing human motion and its pattern classification.
Gaillan H. Abdullah, Bushra R Mhdi, Nahla A.Aljaber,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 2: June 2012 , pp. 65-70
We present tow different design thin film multi-cavity narrow band-pass filter. These filters are most widely used filtration technologies that made possible technical advancement of modern optical communication system. This paper is concerned with a theoretical study on optoelectronics physics to design and analyze this type of filter. A brief introduction to the thin film multi-cavity filter technology will be presented. The recent progress in design thin film multi-cavity technology will be reviewed. These designs consist of two material TiO2 / SiO2 as high / low index. The wavelength range from 600 to 900nm and detecting light at three and four wavelengths' 620,700 and 805 also 625,685,760 and 885nm. The filter is to be coated on Fused Silica having index 1.55 and operates at normal incidence.
Qadir Bux alias Imran Latif, Ismail Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Mujahid Ahmad Zaidi, Kamran Latif, Aftab Hameed, Sasitharan Nagapan,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 2: June 2012 , pp. 53-64
Penetration is the basic element of designing protective concrete structure against the local impact of hard projectile. Conventional, un-conventional, and sensitive structures should have to be designed as self-protective structures in order to resist natural disaster, consciously engendered unpleasant incidents, or/and against accidently occur incidents in nuclear plants, local industries etc.. When hard projectile collides with concrete wall, it is the critical impact energy of the projectile that deforms concrete wall. Critical impact energy is the dominant cause of penetration in concrete structures. Therefore, it is vital to study critical impact energy that causes penetration. An analytical model is developed to predict the required critical impact energy for spalling and tunneling and maximum penetration without rear effects in concrete walls when it is impacted with hard projectile. The newly developed analytical model is examined for CRH =2.0, 3.0. It was found that the predicted results from analytical model are in close relation with experimental data with less than (8%) and (17%) error in case of CRH =2.0 and 3.0. Furthermore, Chen and Li nose shape factor is modified as (Ni), with introduction of empirical frictional factor (Nf). It was found that the predicted results from analytical model with proposed nose shape (Ni) are in close relation with experimental data in all cases as compared to predicted results with traditional Li and Chen nose shape (N*). In general, the analytical model generates encouraging prediction which is consistent and follows a general trend of experimental results. Therefore, it is suggested that the proposed analytical model is conservative.
Sasitharan Nagapan, Ismail Abdul Rahman, Ade Asmi,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 1: March 2012 , pp. 1-10
Construction industry has been developing rapidly around the world. This development increases pressure especially in developing countries to manage construction wastes generated from the industry. The construction wastes can be grouped into physical and non-physical waste and it has impact to environment, economy and social of a country. Before it can be managed well, it is crucial to understand the root causes of the generation. This paper identifies factors that contribute to the generated construction waste. Mapping technique was adopted to extract the physical and non-physical waste factors from 30 research articles around the world. It was found 81 factors exist in construction activities which are directly contributing to waste generation. These factors are grouped into seven categories: Design, Handling, Worker, Management, Site condition, Procurement and External factor. From these factors, 63 contribute to physical waste and 73 contribute to non-physical waste. The highest frequency scored in each category of physical and non-physical waste factor is identified and explained with examples. These findings give awareness to construction stakeholder about the existence of physical and non-physical waste contributory factors.
Ubuoh Emmanuel Attah, S.M.O. Akhionbare, O.A. Onifade, Ogbuji S. I.,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 3: September 2012 , pp. 101-107
This paper reports the results of the investigation of health impacts of environmental noise context in Owerri-urban, due to incessant complains of urban dwellers of noise pollution and their effects on the health. This was measured by the use of 210 questionnaires on urban dwellers along the major routes, in which 30 questionnaires were randomly administered between sampled routes designated NP1- NP7. The observed results indicate that , automobile has 32.3%, church 3.3%, construction work 19.5%, market 5.7%, industrial activities 9.0%, hawking 10%, and school 6.6%, with automobile recording the highest response as the main source of environmental noise pollution and church having the least response. For the perceived health problems caused by environmental noise, the results further shown that Cardiovascular and Physiological effects constituted 20.5%, Hearing Impairment 25.2%, Sleeplessness 21.9%, mental health 11.4%, annoyance 6.6% and human performance 14.2%, with hearing impairment ranking the highest and the lowest being annoyance. Environmental noise was at the peak between the hours of 8- 11 am constituting 49.1%. The hours between 3-7 pm constitutes 39.5%, while <10pm has 11.4% indicating noise pollution is less in the evening time of the day where people are indoor for rest. These then calls for best management practice like enforcement of pollution law, maintenance of vehicles and creation of awareness on health implications of environmental noise.
Sarangam Majumdar, Suman Datta, Sisir Roy,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 3: September 2012 , pp. 139-146
Different types of Quorum Sensing in Bacteria, both intra-species and inter-species, have been analyzed over the last decade. A number of Mathematical Models has been proposed to explain the process of Quorum Sensing which depends on a threshold concentration of autoinducers (or QSM) reflecting high bacterial density. Stability of the solution of the differential equations of such an intra-species model for Vibrio fischeri is discussed in this paper.
Farzin Piltan, Mozhdeh Piran, Mehdi Akbari, Mansour Barzegar,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 3: September 2012 , pp. 116-124
Internal combustion (IC) engines are optimized to meet exhaust emission requirements with the best fuel economy. Closed loop combustion control is a key technology that is used to optimize the engine combustion process to achieve this goal. In order to conduct research in the area of closed loop combustion control, a control oriented cycle-to-cycle engine model, containing engine combustion information for each individual engine cycle as a function of engine crank angle, is a necessity. This research aims to design a new methodology to fix the fuel ratio in internal combustion (IC) engine. Baseline method is a linear methodology which can be used for highly nonlinear system’s (e.g., IC engine). To optimize this method, new linear part sliding mode method (NLPSM) is used. This online optimizer can adjust the optimal coefficient to have the best performance.
Ali A Mohammed, Alaa A. Shakir,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 3: September 2012 , pp. 130-138
Al-wahdaa project drinking water treatment plant has been playing a vital role in supplying drinking water to Baghdad city since 1942s. It was designed with a design capacity 68000 m3/d So that it can cover the needs of the public properly. However, the fatal circumstances which have recently hit Baghdad city represented by wars and terrorist operations have considerably resulted in a significant deterioration in the quality of Al-wahdaa project water treatment plant in the early of 2005s and 2006s. Furthermore, the failure of the equipments and the deficiency of the crew of the power plant have dramatically caused a shortage in the efficiency of the plant. Therefore, this work is the earliest attempt in addressing the problem of this plant. In this study, the removal efficient of the filtration, sedimentation will be addressed as well as the turbidity during three years of investigation. It was found that the average value of the removal of the sedimentation basin was about (46%) and the ( R2 0.902) which is obviously low due to the absence of the permanent maintenance and the continuous clean out for the sedimentation basin. The removal efficiency of filtration basin was as high as (75%) and the( R2 0.445) comparatively with the removal efficiency of the sedimentation basin .The turbidity magnitudes were slightly oscillated along the study period since there has been shortage in the efficiency of sedimentation basin, it is then peaked at rainy season with about (18 NTU). The Total Dissolved Solids (often abbreviated TDS) was high but it may fall within the Limitations, it is interesting to note that it was highly increased at January due to the high turbidity discharge
Irmeilyana Irmeilyana, Fitri Maya Puspita, Indrawati Indrawati, Ferani Eva Zulvia,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 3: September 2012 , pp. 108-115
Rubbish transportation activities in Palembang can be considered as one of the application of Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). We call it Symmetric Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (SCVRP) since we allow two way direction routes. We focus on rubbish transportation of Kecamatan Ilir Barat II Palembang, one of the biggest districts in Palembang to be simplified using preprocessing techniques to achieve simpler SVCRP model. This technique can simplify the model through some stages such as strengthening the bounds of constraint, eliminating redundant variables or fixing the variables . The results show that preprocessing techniques can create simpler SCVRP formulation and easily solve the problem with aid of optimization tool.
Patitapabana Parida, Ajit Behera, Subash Chandra Mishra,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 3: September 2012 , pp. 125-129
In this decade many researches are potentially going forward by using biomaterials in the medical field. Biomaterials can used in living creature body, taking in account of there biocompatibility. This paper describes about classification of different biomaterials which are used in medical industries. Advances in surgical technique and instruments have permitted materials to be used in ways that were not possible previously. Bio-material can partially/totally replaces one or more part of the body. Before using biomaterials, it should in mind that, which categories they are belongs and main focuses are on biocompatibility, bioinert, bioactive/surface reactive, biodegradable, sterilizability, adequate mechanical and physical properties, manufacturability, low weight, reasonable cost etc. It is necessary to classify biomaterials for there suitable use in medical industries.
Esmail Hesameddini, Mohsen Riahi, Habibolla Latifizadeh,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 4: December 2012 , pp. 159-170
In this work, the solutions of the fractional Sharma-Tasso-Olver (FSTO) and Fisher differential equations were investigated. The present study proposed a new novel and simple analytical method to obtain the solutions of FSTO and Fisher differential equations. Whereas, for nonlinear equations in general, no method is exists which yields to exact solution and therefore only approximate analytical solutions can be derived by using procedures such as linearization or perturbation. This method is combined form of the Laplace transformation and the Homotopy perturbation method. Advantage of the Laplace Homotopy Method (LHM), are simplicity of the computations, and non-requirement of linearization or smallness assumptions. For more illustration of the efficiency and reliability of LHM, some numerical results are depicted in different schemes and tables. Numerical results showed that the LHM was partly economical, efficient and precise to obtain the solution of nonlinear fractional differential equations.
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 4: December 2012 , pp. 153-158
Time series forecasting is an active research area that has drawn considerable attention for applications in a variety of areas. Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models are one of the most important time series models used in financial market forecasting over the past three decades but not very often used to forecast gold prices. This paper attempts to address the forecasting of gold bullion coin selling prices. The forecasting models ARIMAs are applied to forecast the gold bullion coin prices. The result suggests that ARIMA (2, 1, 2) is the most suitable model to be used for forecasting gold bullion coin prices. Closer examination suggests that the gold bullion coin selling prices are in upward trends and could be considered as a worthy investment.
Sarangam Majumdar, Sukanta Nayak, S Chakraverty,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 4: December 2012 , pp. 171-180
Traditional finite element method is a well-established method to solve various problems of science and engineering. Different authors have used various methods to solve governing differential equation of heat conduction problem. In this study, heat conduction in a circular rod has been considered which is made up of two different materials viz. aluminum and copper. In earlier studies parameters in the differential equation have been taken as fixed (crisp) numbers which actually may not. Those parameters are found in general by some measurements or experiments. So the material properties are actually uncertain and may be considered to vary in an interval or as fuzzy and in that case complex interval arithmetic or fuzzy arithmetic has to be considered in the analysis. As such the problem is discretized into finite number of elements which depend on interval/fuzzy parameters. Representation of interval/fuzzy numbers may give the clear picture of uncertainty. Hence interval/fuzzy arithmetic is applied in the finite element method to solve a steady state heat conduction problem. Application of fuzzy finite element method in the said problem gives fuzzy system of linear equations in general. Here new methods have also been proposed to handle such type of fuzzy system of linear equations. Corresponding results are computed and has been reported here.
Ubuoh Emmanuel Attah,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 4: December 2012 , pp. 147-152
The study was carried out in Avu Junction in Owerri West L.G.A. at graded distant from the tarred road with an average vehicular flow between 10,000 to 12,000 per day. Soil samples were taken at the distant of 50m, 100m, 150m and 200m respectively. And auger soil samples were taken at the depths of 0-30 cm and 30-45 cm accordingly. Soil factor, heavy metals and microbial populations were investigated at graded distances. From the result of soil factors, pH values indicated acidity with decreased distant from the tarred road ranging between 4.52 – 6.32, soil temperature on the topsoil was higher than subsoil ranging between 19- 25 0C and 18 – 22 0C and soil moisture increases with increased distant from the tarred road ranging between 10.00 – 13.3. Heavy metal concentrations in the soil increased with decreased distant in the order of Pb < Zn < Ni < Cu < Cd. Overall results revealed that Cd in the soil constitutes the highest percentage of 91.7%, Ni 90.9%, Cu 90.1%, Pb. 84.7% and Zn. 81.7%. Significantly, higher fungi and bacterial populations were recorded at increased distant from the tarred road. This then called for proactive measures to checkmate soil contamination due to pollutants from vehicular flows.
C. K. Yap,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 4: December 2012 , pp. 191-196
The present study aimed at determining the concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in fecal materials, byssus and different soft tissues of Perna viridis under controlled laboratory conditions during accumulation and depuration tests and to discuss the roles played by byssus and fecal materials in the coastal waters. The present findings indicated that the byssus of P. viridis acted as an excretion routes for Cd, Pb and Zn while mussels have a retention mechanism of metals as evidenced in the high metal levels found in the fecal materials during the experimental study. This implied that mussel population played an important role in expediting the metal cycling as well as supposedly nutrient cycling in the coastal ecosystem by rapidly recycling back to the coastal environment in the underlying sediments.
Sarhan Musa, Matthew N. O. Sadiku,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 1, No 4: December 2012 , pp. 181-190
Development of very high speed integrated circuits is currently of great interests for today technologies. This paper presents the quasi-TEM approach for the accurate parameters extraction of multiconductor transmission lines interconnect in single, two, and three-layered dielectric region using the finite element method (FEM). We illustrate that FEM is as accurate and effective for modeling multilayered multiconductor transmission lines in strongly inhomogeneous media. We mainly focus on designing of five-conductor transmission lines embedded in single-, two-, three-, and four-layered dielectric media. We compute the capacitance matrices for these configurations. Also, we determine the quasi-TEM spectral for the potential distribution of the multiconductor transmission lines in multilayer dielectric media.
Tomas Ucol Ganiron Jr,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 1: March 2013 , pp. 33-40
This experiment study aimed to use of the waste tires in asphalt mixture as additive. Research has shown that scrap waste tire can be partial replacement by 2% total weight of aggregate retained in No. 4 sieve has an average performance. Characteristics compared to the standard eequirements conformable code. Moreover, the use of scrap waste tire would result in the reduction of waste. High stability of asphalt mixture can be made and the incorporation of admixture or substitute to improve the properties of the mixture. Test result of specimens indicates the stability, and bonding strength of properties, and different reaction when gradation and scrap tire contents have varied. Marshall test having an appropriate workable mixing and right temperature gave sufficient compressive strength and lessen its flow or it deformation under a certain loads.
Hossam Mohamed, Mahdy S. El-Paoumy,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 1: March 2013 , pp. 9-14
Grey system theory and rough set theory are two different mathematical tools that are used to deal with uncertain or incomplete information, and yet they are relevant and complementary to a certain degree. The appropriate hybrid of the two theories can overcome the shortages of their definitions and applications and thus has more powerful functions. This paper proposes An Integrated Methodology that extracting decision rules based on combining grey system and rough set theory. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology was verified by application of this methodology to discover grade rules of electrical transformer evaluation.
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 1: March 2013 , pp. 25-32
Carbon steels and stainless steels are more frequently welded joints than any other materials because of their weldability characteristics. So the spot welded joining characteristic of these two materials are discussed in this paper. The experiment was conducted on medium carbon steel and 304L austenitic stainless by varying the process controlling parameters; such as welding current, welding time and electrode pressing force. As such two sets of data were collected to characterize the formation of spot weld using pneumatic based 75kVA spot welder. The first set was made for the variation of welding time and current whereas the second was made for the variation of welding current and electrode force. The welded specimens are finally underwent the tensile test, hardness test and metallurgical test to characterize the weld growth. The weld nugget growth was noticed for the welding current and weld time increment except the electrode force. By increasing the electrode force, the process resistances were reduced and consequently the weld nugget was reduced. Moreover the effect of heat imbalance was clearly noticed in the weld nuggets due to different electrical and chemical properties.
Mahnaz Parvaneh Nejad Shirazi, Mohammad Bahrami, Fatemeh Dashtaby, Mohammad Sahraeyan,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 1: March 2013 , pp. 51-58
The Fahliyan Formation (Lower Cretaceous) is composed of carbonate rocks and is composed of carbonate reservoir rocks in the Zagros Basin. The Zagros are located on the boundary between the Arabian and Eurasian lithosphere plates and are the orogenic response to a collision between Eurasia and advancing Arabia during the Cenozoic. The study area is located at the northwestern part of Kuh- E- Gadvan, ~45 km northeast of Shiraz in the Folded Zagros Zone. Fahliyan Formation at Kuh- E- Gadvan, with a thickness of 325 meters consisted of thin to thick bedded limestone. The careful examination of thin sections led to the recognition of nine microfacies which was performed on the basis of skeletal and non- skeletal grains and matrix. Microscopic and macroscopic evidences show that Fahliyan Formation facies can be divided into four facies belts, on the basis of depositional features, specific of carbonate platforms of rimmed shelf type. These belts include tidal flat, lagoon, barrier and open marine environments. The Fahliyan Formation (Lower Cretaceous) is composed of carbonate rocks and is composed of carbonate reservoir rocks in the Zagros Basin. The Zagros are located on the boundary between the Arabian and Eurasian lithosphere plates and are the orogenic response to a collision between Eurasia and advancing Arabia during the Cenozoic. The study area is located at the northwestern part of Kuh- E- Gadvan, ~45 km northeast of Shiraz in the Folded Zagros Zone. Fahliyan Formation at Kuh- E- Gadvan, with a thickness of 325 meters consisted of thin to thick bedded limestone. The careful examination of thin sections led to the recognition of nine microfacies which was performed on the basis of skeletal and non- skeletal grains and matrix. Microscopic and macroscopic evidences show that Fahliyan Formation facies can be divided into four facies belts, on the basis of depositional features, specific of carbonate platforms of rimmed shelf type. These belts include tidal flat, lagoon, barrier and open marine environments.
Ubuoh Emmanuel Attah, Akhionbare W. N, Oweremadu E., Onifade O.A,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 1: March 2013 , pp. 1-8
The study was conducted at Nnewi –South of Anambra State, Nigeria to characterize soil in erosion prone area in order to know nutritional values of the soil to enable farmers employ appropriate measures to conserving the soils for high productivity. Soil auger studies were made at three locations where traverse was cut.Three profile pits designated ECH/UK/ 01 (upper slope) , ECH/UK/ 02 (middle slope ) and ECH/UK/ 03 (lower slope) were sited and samples of soils were taken to test for physico-chemical properties of the soils. The results revealed that the soils are deep, well drained , dark reddish brown to reddish brown, and yellowish red of the Munsell color notation. The soil texture in the three pedons have coarse texture that ranged from sandy clay loam to sandy loam, with high percentage of sand which is the reflection of the parent material. The bulk density ranged between between 1.50 – 1.80 g/cm3,, soil pH (3.33 – 4.09) indicating very strong acidity status, O.C.(0.28 – 0.89%), O.M (0.48- 1.54%), total N ( 0.042 – 0.98%), Available P ( 2.80 – 11.00 mg.kg-1), Na+( 0.113 – 270cmol.kg-1), K+(0.036 – 0.087 cmol.kg-1), Mg++(0.80-5.60 cmol.kg-1), Ca++(0.42 – 10.40 cmol.kg-1), EA (0.24 -1.28 cmol.kg-1) CEC( 3.104 – 16.966 cmol.kg-1), and BS ( 80.28 – 96.06%) indicating low fertility rate of the soil due to heavy leaching and intensive agricultural activities that leads to erosion of the soil to devastating stage, which could be restored by reforestation programme, integrated Nutrient Management Options, and Effective public enlightenment campaign about the advantages of soil conservation for environmental sustainability.
Rajendran Selvamani, P. Ponnusamy,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 1: March 2013 , pp. 41-50
The three dimensional dispersion of thermo elastic waves in a homogeneous isotropic rotating cylindrical panel is investigated in the context of the linear theory of thermo elasticity. Three displacement potential functions are introduced to uncouple the equations of motion. The frequency equations are obtained using the traction free boundary conditions. The Bessel function with complex argument is directly used to analyze the frequency equations. The analysis of thermally induced vibration of rotating cylindrical panel is common place in the design of structures, atomic reactors, steam turbines, supersonic aircraft, and other devices operating at elevated temperature. In order to illustrate theoretical development, numerical solutions are obtained and presented graphically for a zinc material .To compare the model with the exiting literature, the non dimensional frequencies for different thickness to inner radius ratio are computed and they show very good agreement.
Jamilus Md Hussin, Ismail Abdul Rahman, Aftab Hameed Memon,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 1: March 2013 , pp. 15-24
Construction industry is one of the most significant industries that contribute toward socio-economic growth especially to developing countries. The nature of the industry are fragmented, unique and complex which always face chronic problems like time overrun (70% of projects), cost overrun (average 14% of contract cost), and waste generation (approximately 10% of material cost). It is also regarded as one of the largest polluters to our environment. Traditional practices of construction process and management are found unable to control unprecedented challenges including the carbon emission issue. These challenges accent the need for practitioners to rethink and improve the construction process and technology. This shows that the construction industry has a major potential in the advancement of sustainable development by addressing issues related to the economic, social, and environment. By adopting sustainable construction, it can reduce the overall energy use and maximize potential for renewable energy supply, minimize waste, conserve water resources, enhance water quality, incorporate water sensitive design and minimize vulnerability to flooding, minimize polluting emissions to water, air and soil and minimize noise and light pollution.
Issali Auguste Emmanuel, Nguessan Angelo Evariste Badou, Mpika Joseph, Adiko Amoncho, Sangare Abdourahamane, Saraka Didier Martial, Deffan Zranseu Ange Bénédicte,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 2: June 2013 , pp. 95-104
To determine the cropping type to apply to four clones of Ananas comosus in farms, their behaviour under hand selfings was analysed. 103-104-6, 410-106-33 and 410-200-15 hybrid female clones and RE43 Queen Victoria clone as well as HA10 and HA25 as controls were involved in a 6 x 6 complete diallel crossing system with selfings. The total seeds number derived from self hand-pollinations per week, mean seeds number obtained per self-pollinated flower and per week, weight of ripe fruit and bloomed flowers number per week were measured. The Anova, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) were successively run. Results showed that 410-200-15 was revealed self-incompatible, while RE43 is found to be self-sterile. In the same way, 410-106-33 expresses self-sterile behaviour, whereas 103-104-6 shows the self-fertile one. The behaviour under selfings of both 410-200-15 and 410-106-33 comes from their HA10 Smooth Cayenne female parent which was previously characterised like self-incompatible. The structurings provided by the Anova and HCA are globally comparable. The 410-200-15 hybrid clone can already be recommended for on-farm trials under mono-crop. Nonetheless, the multi-crop will be envisioned once panmixia results will have demonstrated its inter-sterility. The 410-106-33 and 103-104-6 must be first subjected to successive back crosses before their on-farm trials. The RE43 clone must be cultivated in one crop. The morphological relatedness of five clones is discussed.
Sarangam Majumdar, S Chakraverty,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 2: June 2013 , pp. 73-76
System of linear equation (crisp) can be solved in a various way .In the real world problem parameters are in interval form .In this paper we discuss the solution of interval system of linear equations and proposed a new method for handling this type of system of linear equations. In this model we consider the coefficient matrix and the right vector as interval. Example problems are given to have the efficiency and powerfulness of the proposed method.
Amera G. Baker,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 2: June 2013 , pp. 67-72
The micro-structural changes and mechanical properties were investigated in an Al reinforced with SiC particles which synthesized using powder technology technique. SiC/Al composites containing four different weight percentages 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of SiC. X-ray diffraction was used to characterization and observes the phases formed in the process of sintering at different temperatures (800 0C, 1100 0C). Crystallite sizes calculated from Scherer relation, the grain size of the SiC/Al are observed to increase with the increasing in the sintering temperature of the samples. The hardness tests were conducted in the suitable Hardness Testing Apparatus by choosing appropriate scales of loading and measurement. The test revealed a marked increase in the Vickers hardness with respect to the base composites as well as silicon carbide. It was found from the experimentation that the hardness rate increases with increasing weight fraction of silicon carbide (SiC) and sintering temperature. The best results have been obtained at 70% weight fraction of SiC particles at 1100 0C. The aim of this investigation is to obtain the fundamental understanding of the micro structural changes of the Al matrix composites reinforced with SiC particles and mechanical properties.
Mohammad Bahrami, Solmaz Arzaghi, Mohammad Sahraeyan,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 2: June 2013 , pp. 89-94
The Sachun Formation (Paleocene- Lower Eocene), has been formed in Zagros basin, and has 1415 meters thickness in its type section. Sachun Formation sequence at the southern part of Kuh- E- Mianjangal, in Folded Zagros Zone in southwest of Iran, with a thickness of 580 meters was formed of two members. The Lower Member consists of about 280 meters thin to medium bedded of marl, marlstone and argillaceous, silty and sandy limestone with color of light gray to bluish gray, and associated with gypsum inter- layers, which are repeated continuously upward. In each of the alternations or cycles, the terrigenous grains size increase upward which is due to the depth decreasing in each cycle. The Upper Member consists of about 300 meters alternation of gypsum and marl, light gray to bluish gray associated with inter- layers of argillaceous and silty limestone. Microscopic studies of argillaceous limestone, in both members, have showed micrite and pelmicrite microfacies. No distinct fossils, either microscopic or macroscopic, are found in these members in the studied section. Sachun Formation facies have been deposited in a shallow depositional basin which has been controlled by a permanent sea level changes. Among the marine environments, peritdal environments show the most and the best correlation with the Sachun Formation facies. According to the sedimentary records, Sachun Formation has been deposited in a tectonically instable basin.
Abbas Jawad Al-Taie, Bushra S. Al-Busoda,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 2: June 2013 , pp. 77-84
The main focus of this study is on the soil properties (preconsolidation pressure (Pc), and overconsolidation ratio (OCR)), that are critical in the determination of the settlement behavior of the structure. Prior knowledge of these properties, even approximate values, will be assets during the planning stages to determine the suitability of structure site. Conducting laboratory tests for the determination of (Pc) will be costly both in terms of time and money. In the present study a specific empirical correlation models are proposed to estimate the (Pc) and (OCR) of undisturbed cohesive soil of Baghdad city using large number of consolidation data. The (Pc) and (OCR) are dependent variables and are treated as functions of natural void ratio (eo), natural moisture content (wo), total unit weight (gt) , dry unit weights (gd), and overburden pressure (Po) which are termed as independent variables. The regression analysis revealed that (eo) and (Po) yielded sufficiently reliable correlation to estimate (Pc). Also, a good estimation was obtained for (OCR
Bushra R. Mhdi, Nahla A.Aljabar, Suad M.Ali, Abeer H.Khalid,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 2: June 2013 , pp. 59-66
Two main concepts in design and construction of stress and fine motion detection system using fiber optic sensor was included in this project. The first is design and construction concept using Intensity Modulation techniques using plastic multimode optical fiber(125μm dim)and has NA(0.27) with losses rate (2.1 db)and directionality about(25 db),and we used (He-Ne)laser source(632.8 nm)with (LLM-2 light power meter) to detect the variation in output laser power due to micro-displacement for movement body under test. The second concept include Modeling for laser beam tracking through fiber and that which reflected for mirror to detector. Variation in output power due to target movement was theoretical analyzed from study of variation of Gaussian front wave profile of using (MATLAB) program within displacement range from(0-5 mm).Non-linear relation between separated distance and beam intensity was investigated. Finally our design are evaluated in comporizim with published research which found compatible in Theoretical and experimental results.
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 2: June 2013 , pp. 85-88
Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles are most widely used in the field of Biotechnology and Nanoelectronics due to their good transparency, high electron mobility, strong room-temperature luminescence and nontoxic. Due to their increasing demand, highly specified and monodispersed nanoparticles formation is a revolutionary field. Here ZnO nanoparticles are prepared by modified sol-gel method and are characterized using UV-Vis Absorption Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Modified sol-gel mediated ZnO nanoparticles are proved to synthesize the highly stable, monodispersed and cost effective nanoparticles. The results are quite appreciable and wide band gap- long range ordered ZnO nanoparticles are obtained than the conventional route.
Alaa A. Shakir, Ali Ahmed Mohammed,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 3: September 2013 , pp. 145-156
The most basic building material for construction of houses is the conventional brick. The rapid growth in today’s construction industry has obliged the civil engineers in searching for more efficient and durable alternatives far beyond the limitations of the conventional brick production. A number of studies had taken serious steps in manufacturing bricks from several of waste materials. However, the traditional mean of bricks production which has brought hazardous impacts to the context has not yet been changed or replaced by more efficient and sustainable one. This paper aims to compile this state of the art work of manufacturing bricks in the past and the current trend in the bricks industry with respect to the raw materials, ways of manufacturing and the out- comings. Moreover, the hazardous impacts of the conventional brick manufacturing will be wholly covered as well as the attempts of the previous researches in treating the problem properly. This paper is an attempt to fill the gap of the past studies and suggest more sustainable and sophisticated methods of brick manufacturing in the future.
R. Subba Rao, G. Prasad, R. R. L. Kantam,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 3: September 2013 , pp. 141-144
Statistical quality control relates heavily on the goodness of control chart limits. The more accurate those limits are, the more likely are to detect whether a process is in control. Various procedures have been developed to compute good control limits. This paper proposes construction of Range chart by considering a Pareto distribution of IV kind. The cumulative distribution function of sample range from their distribution is derived. The percentiles of the distribution of range are worked out and are used to construct the control limits. The performance of the control chart is compared with that of gamma based control chart. Interval estimation for the scale parameter is also worked out.
Elham Jasim Mohammad, Gaillan H. Abdullah,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 3: September 2013 , pp. 165-170
A theoretical investigation of one dimensional planar photonic crystal is carried out. These photonic crystal consist of a dielectric layer structures with refractive index n1=1.45 and n2= 3.45. This work presents a systematic investigation of the reflection, forbidden bands and density of state of p-polarization. In optical sciences, the refractive index of an optical medium is a most fundamental quantity. The refractive index determines the refraction and reflection occurring at the boundary between two media. The propagation angle in one medium is taken with respect to normal inside the first medium varies between 0 and π/2. The program is written in MATLAB to simulate and analysis dispersions of electric magnetic waves in one dimension photonic crystal.
Mohammad Reza Rakhshani, Mohammad Ali Mansouri-Birjandi,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 3: September 2013 , pp. 133-136
A new type of optical add drop filter (ADF) based on slab photonic crystals resonant cavities is proposed. ADF operation is based on coupling between the photonic crystal waveguides. Using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method and plane wave expansion (PWE) method, the ADF characteristics and band structure of the filter, respectively are obtained. The proposed structure is optimized to work as an ADF. Dropping efficiency at 1560nm and quality factor (Q) of our proposed structure are 90% and 195, respectively. The quantities of quality factor and transmission efficiency are suitable for optical applications. This structure is highly attractive for photonic integrated circuits (PICs).
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 3: September 2013 , pp. 113-124
A powerful and accurate model for interpolation of data is piecewise cubic spline method. In this model the obtained final curve consists of a series of local cubic spline curves which combine together with suitable continuity along their boundaries. The continuity at the boundaries of each local curve is c2. The attraction of this research is to apply cubic spline method for approximation and estimation of data. Therefore; each local spline curve satisfies the minimization of sum of square errors along its length in addition of obtaining c2 continuity at its edges or boundaries. Because in the local scale the approximation of any section of data by cubic spline is accurate; therefore, the presented model is applicable to any kind of data with highly nonlinear distributions.
May Thet New, San San Yu, Zaw Ko Latt,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 3: September 2013 , pp. 157-164
Among 12 isolated soil yeasts, four isolates were selected according to their salt tolerance and these four isolates tolerated 14% NaCl. Moreover, they can tolerant to KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2. Phosphate solubilization of selected soil yeast isolates were detected in Pikovskaya’s broth supplemented with various NaCl concentrations (ranging from 0% to 10%). They can solubilize insoluble phosphate at all NaCl concentrations. But with increasing NaCl concentration, phosphate solubilization was decreased and the best solubilization was occurred at 6 days incubation period. Above 10% NaCl concentration, these isolates cannot solubilize insoluble phosphate, Ca3(PO4)2. On maize germination under NaCl stressed conditions, it was found that soil yeast isolates enhanced maize germination when compared with uninoculated treatment. Above 0.5% NaCl concentration, germination percentage of maize was obviously different between inoculated and uninoculated treatments. Like in phosphate solubilization, germination percentage was decreased with increasing NaCl concentration. At 2% NaCl concentration, germination was not found. So these isolates tolerated to some degree of NaCl, there is limited range for their functioning. After treating salt affected soils with soil yeast isolates for four weeks, salinity of treated soils was slightly decreased but total nitrogen content, K+, and available nutrients (P and K2O) were slightly increased when compared with those of untreated soil.
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 3: September 2013 , pp. 137-140
Neurotransmitters’ activity, pharmacotherapies, pathological status and the possible interactions between them might influence the neural functions of the brain regions involved in the decision making process. Therefore, we should consider that under certain circumstances, the decision making ability and eventually the behavior might be affected if the individual is for example either under the influence of pharmakons or suffering from neurological disorders. Thus, during legal trials implicating this individual, such approach may have an impact on the juridical decisions or verdicts, especially if it is supported by experts’ opinions on related fields such as pharmacology, toxicology, psychiatry and neuropsychology.
Alaa A. Shakir, Ali Ahmed Mohammed,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 3: September 2013 , pp. 105-112
Given the great demand for parking and the implications in the environmental of commuting, universities not in the national university of Malaysia (UKM) only but around the world are implementing strategies to reduce dependence on private vehicles and increase the use of alternative modes of transport. That it must be that the system provides transportation comfort, save the time and be a friend of the environment. Were distributed in n= 80 samples for a survey of students to know the behavior of the student for transportation provided on campus. Noted in the questionnaire that focused on graduate students because they represent the largest proportion. In this questionnaire was to know about student behavior and prevent parking on campus and what is reason that prevents students from turning to public transport within the campus. The results shows that 65% use own vehicle and 35 % use public bus which shows the size of problem.
S.V.S. Girija, A.V. Dattatreya Rao, Phani Yedlapalli,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 3: September 2013 , pp. 125-132
Circular data arise in various walks of life, where we consider the unit circle to be the sample space. Minh &Farnum (2003) developed that Mobius transformation or Stereographic projection is applied to generate probability distributions on real line. We derive an asymmetric distribution called Stereographic Lognormal distribution to model circular data with an emphasis on the Inverse Stereographic Projection. The graphs of probability density function, cumulative distribution function and characteristic function are drawn. Since Stereographic Lognormal distribution is an asymmetric, a complex-valued characteristic function is derived and population characteristics are also studied. Goodness of fit is verified for the data Set of cross – bed azimuths of palaeocurrents of size 40 which contains angular data.
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 4: December 2013 , pp. 185-192
The influence of magnetic field on the propagation of Rayleigh waves in an inhomogeneous, orthotropic elastic solid medium has been discussed. The method of variable separation of is used to find the frequency equation of the surface waves. The obtained dispersion equations are in agreement with the classical results when magnetic field and non-homogeneity are neglected.
Ajit Behera, Asit Behera, S.C. Mishra,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 4: December 2013 , pp. 205-208
Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys emerge as new functional materials which have interesting magnetomechanical coupling effects such as the ferromagnetic shape memory effect. These types of materials significantly change their shape and dimensions under the application of external fields i.e. either by using thermal energy or magnetic energy. Among them, some are the magnetostrictive alloys which in turn can change their shape by magnetic field up to 0.1 percent and by mechanical stress up to 10 percent in martensitic state. Up to 6 percent deformation can be obtained in materials under the action of the magnetic field which undergo the thermoelastic transformation into ferromagnetic phase. Due to higher processing cost and costly elements for alloying, ferromagnetic shape memory alloy have not so broadly utilization and satisfactorily use. Among different type of Ni-Mn based Heusler ferromagnetic shape memory alloys, Ni-Mn-Sn alloy have potential properties and exhibits lower cost. In this paper martensitic transformation of Ni50Mn50-ySny (y= 5, 10, 12.5) alloys were investigated. By differential scanning calorimetric measurement, it has been observed that, by keeping one element i.e. Ni as constant weight percentage, if we increase the weight percent of Sn; then martensitic starting temperature as well as austenitic starting temperature gradually decreases.
Bushra R. Mhdi, F. Hamode Jamal, Nahla A. Aljaber, Abeer H. Kalad,
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 4: December 2013 , pp. 217-220
Sol–gel materials may found plenty of applications, e.g., as carriers for various substances, which can be exploited for sensing purposes or as drug releasing carriers. In this work, the fluorescence properties of two photosensitizers immobilized in silica based sol–gel materials were examined. Sol-gel derived silica possess many promising features, including room-temperature preparation procedure, porosity, chemical and physical stability. The material preparation procedure is described and practical remarks on silica-based sol-gels are included. It is reported that sol-gels with entrapped various molecules may be used in construction of implants and coatings with bioactive properties. It is shown how to exploit the sol-gel production route for construction of sol-gel coated fiber optic applicators for chemical sensor. We used a Sodium silicate(Na2 O3 Si) instead of the Trathyl Ortho Silicate (TEOS ) (Si (OC2 H5)4).We study the optical characteristics for this sample.