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International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE)



International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), ISSN 2088-8708, e-ISSN 2722-2578 is an official publication of the Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES). The IJECE is an international open access refereed journal that has been published online since 2011. The IJECE is open to submission from scholars and experts in the wide areas of electrical, electronics, instrumentation, control, telecommunication and computer engineering from the global world, and publishes reviews, original research articles, and short communications. This journal is indexed and abstracted by SCOPUS (Elsevier), SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), and in Top Databases and Universities. Now, this journal has SNIP: 0.833; SJR: 0.277; CiteScore: 2.7; and is Q2 in both of the Electrical & Electronics Engineering, and Computer Science). Our aim is to provide an international forum for scientists and engineers to share research and ideas, and to promote the crucial field of electrical & power engineering, circuits & electronics, power electronics & drives, automation, instrumentation & control engineering, digital Signal, image & video processing, telecommunication system & technology, computer science & information technology, internet of things, big data & cloud computing, and artificial intelligence & soft computing.

Gopalkrishna D Kamalapur, Udaykumar R Y,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 2: April 2012 , pp. 147-154

Rural electrification is an integral component of poverty alleviation and rural growth of a nation. In India, electricity has not played effective role in the socio-economic growth of village. GDP is increasing with 8 percent where as contribution of agriculture sector is 1.9 percent. Government of India has ambitious target of providing electricity to all villages by 2008 and all rural households by 2012. Steps are already initiated with Rural Electric Corporation, Rural Electricity Supply Technology mission, State Electricity Boards, Reforms in Power Sector. An attempt has been made in this paper to assess the features of rural electrification in India and the problems faced by State Electricity Boards. Challenges of rural electrification in the changing scenario of power sector reforms are identified.DOI:

Samini Subramaniam, Su-Cheng Haw, Poo Kuan Hoong,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 2: April 2012 , pp. 239-246

XML has emerged as the leading medium for data transfer over the World Wide Web. At the present days, relational database is still widely used as the back-end database in most organizations. Since there is mismatch in these two structures, an effective mapping scheme is definitely essential that provides seamless integration with relational databases. On the other hand, an immutable labeling scheme is certainly significant to dentify the XML nodes uniquely as well as supports dynamic update without having the existing labels to be re-labeled when there is an occurance of dynamic update. As such, in this paper, we propose s-XML by adopting the Persistent Labeling scheme as the annotation scheme to ensure seamless integration with relational database and able to support updates without the need to re-construct the existing labels. We conduct experiments to show that s-XML performs better in terms of mapping the XML nodes to relational databases, query retrieval and dynamic update compared to the existing approaches.DOI:

Coppisetty Srinivasa Rao,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 2: April 2012 , pp. 183-190

This paper presents the design of controller based on the principles of Neural networks. The concept of artificial intelligent techniques greatly helps in overcoming the disadvantages posed by the conventional controllers. A hierarchical architecture of three layer feed forward neural network (NN) is proposed for controller design based on back propagation algorithm (BPA). Area Control Error (ACE) is considered as input to the neural network controller and the output of the controller is provided to the governor in each area. The proposed controllers are tested for a two area hydrothermal system. Simulation results show that the limitations of conventional controller can be overcome by including Neural concept and thereby the dynamic response of the system with respect to peak time, overshoot and settling time can be improved drastically. Keywords: Automatic Generation Control, Hydrothermal system, Neural network, Back propagation algorithm, Area control errorDOI:

Y. Kusuma Latha, Ch. Saibabu, Y.P. Obulesh,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 1: September 2011 , pp. 31-42

The active power filter has been proved to be an effective method to mitigate harmonic currents generated by nonlinear loads as well as to compensate reactive power. The methods of harmonic current detection play a crucial part in the performance of active power filter (APF). This paper presents a new control strategy in which three Shunt Active Power filter Configurations aredeveloped in order to define new simple control algorithm which  requires minimum number of current measurements. The effecticeveness of the proposed control strategies are demonstrated through results. The entire control system is implemented with MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results are presented for different control strategies and comparison is made among themDOI:

Vishwakumar Revanasiddappa Sheelavant, Vijaya C, S C Shiralashetti,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 1: September 2011 , pp. 9-16

Modern spectral and harmonic analysis is based on Fourier transforms. However, these techniques are less efficient in tracking the signal dynamics for transient disturbances. Consequently, the wavelet transform has been introduced as an adaptable technique for non-stationary signal analysis. Although the application of wavelets in the area of power system engineering is still relatively new, it is evolving very rapidly. In this paper wavelet based method for detection of faults in an ungrounded integrated power system (IPS) of Navy ships is proposed. However the “Virtual ground” exists between the modules of IPS and ship hull, because of insulation capacitance of the cable and the EMI filters between the modules of the IPS. The fault current is very low for a single line to ground fault in this ungrounded system allowing continuous operation but also making fault detection difficult. The proposed method uses wavelets for detection of ground fault in ungrounded power system. The ground fault conditions are simulated using MATLAB-SIMULINK and fault detection implemented with Daubechies wavelets. It is shown that transient ground faults can be detected by wavelet analysis of the line to line voltages when ship load is balanced and unbalanced. Verification of the proposed method has been done by simulating fault between a line and ship hull and analyzing the results.DOI:

Gurrala Madhusudhan Rao,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 1: September 2011 , pp. 43-48

Abstract: This paper describes the model and analyzes custom power devices for compensating voltage sag and swell conditions in three phase systems. Faults occurring in power distribution systems or facilities in plants cause the voltage sag or swell. If a fault occurs, it can damage the power system or user’s facility. Sensitivity to voltage sags and swells varies within different applications. For sensitive loads (PLC’s, paper mills etc.), even voltage sags of short duration can cause serious problems in the entire system. Normally, a voltage interruption triggers a protection device, which causes shutdown of the entire system. In order to mitigate power interruptions, this paper proposes a scheme for voltage sag support based on a pulse width modulated autotransformer. The proposed scheme is able to quickly recognize the voltage sag or swell condition, and it can correct the voltage by either boosting the input voltage during voltage sag events or reducing the voltage during swell events.DOI:

Hadi Arabshahi,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 1: September 2011 , pp. 17-20

Ensemble Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out to investigate the effects of Gate length and different source-drain bias on the characteristics of wurtzite SiC MOSFETs. Electronic states within the conduction band valleys are represented by non-parabolic ellipsoidal valleys centred on important symmetry points of the Brillouin zone. The following scattering mechanisims, i.e, impurity, polar optical phonon, acoustic phonon, alloy and piezoelectric are inculded in the calculation. Ionized imurity scattering has been treated beyound the Born approximation using the phase-shift analysis. Two transistors with gate lengths of 200 and 400 nm are simulated. Simulations show that with a fixed channel length, when the gate length is decreased, the output drain current is increased, and therefore the transistor transconductance increases. Moreover, with increasing temperature the drain current is reduced, which results in the reduced drain barrier lowering. The simulated device geometries and doping are matched to the nominal parameters described for the experimental structures as closely as possible, and the predicted drain current and other electrical characteristics for the simulated device show much closer agreement with the available experimental data.DOI:

K Subbaramaiah, V.C. Jagan Mohan, V.C.Veera Reddy,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 1: September 2011 , pp. 21-30

This paper presents the modelling and simulation of Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) in a two area system for Automatic Generation Control (AGC) under deregulated environment. The modelling of Thyristor Controlled phase Shifter (TCPS) is also carried out and comparison is made between SSSC and TCPS. A two area hydrothermal system under deregulated environment has been considered for this purpose.  The devices are modeled and attempt has been made to incorporate these devices in the two area system thus improving the dynamic response of the system. The effect of these parameters on the system is demonstrated with the help of computer simulations. A systematic method has also been demonstrated for the modeling of this component in the system. Computer simulations reveal that due to the presence of SSSC along with TCPS, the dynamic performance of the system in terms of settling time, overshoot is greatly improved than that of without SSSC.DOI:

Haresh A. Suthar, Jagrut J. Gadit,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 1: September 2011 , pp. 49-52

Modelling is nothing but converting physical information in to mathematical form. Mathematical model plays vital role for identification and analysis of the system. In this paper simple water heater system was taken as test bench. Considering system parameters mathematical model of first order with time delayed was derived. Model was simulated in the simulation tool MATLAB and systems response has been studied by changing various parameters like static gain, time constant, delay time and noise, for applied step input.Response of the simulated system was analysed and compare with the actual real time system parameters. Keywords: Modelling, Analysis, MATLAB, Water heater system.DOI:

Ashwani Kumar Sharma, Jitendra Kumar,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 1: September 2011 , pp. 71-84

Abstract—Available transfer capability in the transmission network has become essential quantity to be declared well in advance for its commercial use in a competitive electricity market. Its fast computation using DC load flow based approach is used worldwide for on line implementation. Many authors have proposed the ATC calculation based on DC/AC load flow approach. In this paper, AC PTDF based approach has been proposed for multi-transaction cases using power transfer sensitivity and Jacobian calculated with three different methods. The methods can be implemented for any number of transactions occurring simultaneously. The results have been determined for intact and line contingency cases taking multi-transaction/simultaneous as well as single transaction cases. The main contributions of the paper are: (i) ATC determination for multi-transactions environment, (ii) ATC determination and comparison with three approaches of PTDF calculations, (iii) LODFs with line contingency cases for multi-transaction environment and thereby ATC determination. The results have also been obtained with DC method for comparison. The proposed method have been applied for IEEE 24 bus RTS. Keywords: Available transfer capability, AC load flow, AC power transfer distribution factors , line outage contingency, line outage distribution factors, multi-transactions, simultaneous transactions.DOI:

Ibrahim A.B, Abdul Rani Othman, Hussain M.N, Othman A.R, Johal M.S,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 1: September 2011 , pp. 1-8

This project present a design of a 5.8 GHz low noise amplifier (LNA) design with cascode and cascaded techniques using T-matching network applicable for IEEE 802.16 standard. The amplifier use FHX76LP Low Noise SuperHEMT FET. The LNA designed used T-matching network consisting of lump element reactive element at the input and the output terminal. The cascode and cascaded low noise amplifier (LNA) produced gain of 36.8dB and noise figure (NF) at 1.3dB. The input reflection (S11) and output return loss (S22) are -11.4dB and -12.3dB respectively. The bandwidth of the amplifier is more than 1GHz. The input sensitivity is compliant with the IEEE 802.16 standards.DOI:

G. Sreenivasan,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 1: September 2011 , pp. 59-70

Dynamic economic load dispatch (DELD) is one of the major operational decisions in power system operation and control. It is a Dynamic problem due to dynamic nature of Power system and the large variation of load demand. This absolute problem is normally solved by discretisation of the entire dispatch period into a number of small time intervals over which the load is assumed to be constant and the system is considered to be in temporal steady state. This paper presents particle swarm optimization technique to solve the DELD problem for the determination of the global or near global optimum dispatch solution. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, three test systems consisting of 5,10 and 15 generating units, with incorporation of load balance constraints, operating limits, valve point loading, ramp constraints and network lossesare considered and tested. The comparison of numerical results demonstrate the performance and applicability of the proposed method. Keywords: Dynamic economic load dispatch (DELD), Particle Swarm Optimization, Valve - point loading effect, Ramp Rate Limits.DOI:

Qurrotul Aini, Bakri La Katjong, Vicy Adriani,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 1: September 2011 , pp. 53-58

PT. Bintang Dharma Hurip, as one of appraisal companies already has the land and residential data in Pekanbaru, many data were not stored in organized database, therefore made difficult and delayed tasks of valuer especially to determine the Reproduction Cost New (RCN). The problem would be resolved when researchers proposed a dynamic property database, calculated the market value of land and implementation fuzzy queries so the redundancy data and loss can be minimized. The purpose of the research was to obtain a reference database application of properties in Pekanbaru based on last two years survey by PT. Bintang Dharma Hurip. The development method of research used Rapid Application Development, which were consists of requirements, design, construct, and implementation phases. The application used Visual Basic 6.0 and Microsoft Access 2003 as database tools. The research result was a database application size 6 MB. The user’s application divided into three, which are inspector, valuer, and reviewer. In the implementation phase, the researcher asked three reviewers, two valuers and one inspector PT. Bintang Dharma Hurip to conduct tests on the application. Apparently, from the test results, researchers concluded that the application is running well and suitable with company’s needs. Keywords: database, fuzzy, property, market value, PT. Bintang Dharma Hurip.DOI:

Sannidhi K S, M. Z. Kurian,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 2: December 2011 , pp. 182-186

The present work discusses the technique and methodology of analysing and Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC) Images acquired during India’s first  Moon mission, Chandrayaan  – 1, launched on October, 2008  for generating Digital Elevated Model (DEM). The Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC) on India’s first satellite for lunar exploration, Chandrayaan-1, is intended for systematic topographic mapping of the entire lunar surface, including the far side and the polar regions. A high resolution imagery of the entire Moon will help detailed study of specific lunar regions of scientific interests and further our understanding of lunar evolution. The swath of the instrument is 20 km. The digital elevation model (DEM) is a computer representation of the moon’s surface. DEMs can be generated by traditional photogrammetry based on aerial photos if they are available and they are created very often more economically by the means of space images. A Digital Terrain Model (DEM) is a continuous representation of a ground surface landform that is commonly used to produce topographic maps. DEMs are created by integrating data obtained from a wide range of techniques including remote sensing and land surveying.DEM's are sampled arrays of elevation values representing ground positions at regularly spaced intervals. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form.  The normal orientation of data is by columns and rows. In this project work a DEM is created for each of the lunar images retrieved from the space craft using Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN)Key Words : Chandrayaan-1, DEM, Swath, TMC, TINDOI:

Perumandla Sadanandam,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 2: December 2011 , pp. 110-118

The performance of DSTATCOM depends on a DC capacitor voltage regulation.The regulation of DC capacitor voltage based on optimal PI coefficients. The conventional method to determine PI coefficients is trial and error method. In this paper Genetic Alogorithem is applied for exact calculation of optimized PI coefficients can carried out to reduce disturbances in DC link voltage. Optimizations and simulations are worked out in MATLAB environment. DOI:

Nagaraj Mudukpla Shadaksharappa,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 2: December 2011 , pp. 135-139

A simple method to optimize generation scheduling for thermal power plant using artificial neural network is presented. The optimal generation of generators is achieved considering operational and load constraints. The B- Coefficients are used to evaluate transmission loss in the system. The fuel cost of each unit in a plant is computed. The effectiveness of methodology is tested with six thermal power plants. A result of proposed method is compared with classical method. The artificial neural network method is quick. Hence, artificial neural network technique can be used in central load dispatch center.Keywords- Neural network, B-Coefficients, Fuel cost, Power loss, Real powerDOI:

Helmy Mohammed Abdel-Mageed,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 1: February 2012 , pp. 35-45

This paper aims to simulate a wind farm model that includes a wind turbine and three different types of generators , which are three-phase synchronous generator, three-phase squirrel-cage induction generatorand three-phase doubly-fed induction generator ,these generators are the main machines that generally used in the field of wind energy generation. All generators are connected in parallel at the point of common coupling(pcc) and connected to the utility grid . This model is a simple representation of the actual model of zafarana, which is the biggest wind farm in Egypt and further to use it in different kinds of simulations, and display the difference in response among all generators with thesame power rating (500 kw) and subjected to the same operating conditions and faults. This paper describes the simulation of the differentfaults that occur along the transmission line of the power system such as single-line fault, line to line fault, double lines to ground fault, and finally three line faults. The response of the wind turbine and the different generators will be analyzed and discussed to compare the transient response of all generators at the different types of faults, where the fault period is selected to be 300 ms. The model is created in MATLAB software that enables the dynamic and static simulations of electric, electromagnetic and electromechanical systems. The machines are standard blocks in the software library.DOI:

Hoga Saragih, Indra Sulistyo Wibowo, Wisnu Darjono Tulodo Utomo, Rusdianto Roestam,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 2: December 2011 , pp. 202-212

The purposes of this research are to calculate the capacity of runway with runway capacity simulation software using Genetic Algorithm, and to analyze the efforts which have more profound effect. To enhance the runway capacity, some strategies are researched, such as reduction of separation to meet criteria set by FAA’s rule, addition of the exit taxiway, addition of the runway according to master plan of Soekamo-Hatta Airport and changing the runway utilization strategies. Out of the four strategies, the most efficient solution is changing the runway utilization strategies and reduction in separation. However, the addition of runway has the highest capacity increase. Keywords: genetic algorithm, simulation, runway capacity.DOI:

Ehsan Ollah Sheybani,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 1: February 2012 , pp. 120-129

This research aims at providing means to image comparison from different image processing algorithms for performance assessment purposes. Reconstruction of images corrupted by blur and noise requires specialized filtering techniques. Due to the immense effect of these corruptive parameters, it is often impossible to evaluate the quality of a reconstructed image produced by one technique versus another. The algorithm presented here is capable of performing this comparison analytically and quantitatively at a low computational cost (real-time) and high efficiency. The parameters used for comparison are the degree of blurriness, information content, and the amount of various types of noise associated with the reconstructed image. Based on a heuristic analysis of these parameters the algorithm assesses the reconstructed image and quantify the quality of the image by characterizing important aspects of visual quality. Extensive effort has been set forth to obtain real-world noise and blur conditions so that the various test cases presented here could justify the validity of this approach well. The tests performed on the database of images produced valid results for the algorithms consistently. This paper presents the description and validation (along with test results) of the proposed algorithm for blind image quality assessment.DOI:  

J.Surya Kumari, Ch. Sai Babu,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 1: February 2012 , pp. 26-34

Photovoltaic power supplied to the utility grid is gaining more and more visibility while the world’s powers demand is increases. Growing demand, advancements in semiconductor technology and magnetic materials such as high frequency inductor cores, has a significant impact on PV inverter topologies and their efficiencies, on the improvement of the control circuits on the potential of costs reduction. The user naturally wants to operate the Photovoltaic (PV) array at its highest energy conversion output by continuously utilizing the maximum available solar power of the array. The electrical system PV modules are powered by solar arrays requires special design considerations due to varying nature of the solar power generated resulting from unpredictable and sudden changes in weather conditions which change the solar irradiation level as well as the cell operating temperature. This paper, a mathematical model of a Photovoltaic (PV) cell used matlab-simulink environment, is developed and presented. The model is developed using basic circuit equations of the photovoltaic solar cells including the effects of solar irradiation and temperature changes. The main objective is to find the parameters of the nonlinear I–V equation by adjusting the curve at three points: open circuit, maximum power, and short circuit. the method finds the best I–V equation for the single-diode photovoltaic (PV) model including the effect of the series and parallel resistances–  Key words : Photovoltaic system (PV), maximum power, PV array,PV cellDOI:

Amit Kumar Yadav, O. P. Rahi, Hasmat Malik, Abdul Azeem,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 2: December 2011 , pp. 102-109

This paper highlights the transformer design optimization problem. The objective of transformer design optimization problem requires minimizing the total mass (or cost) of the core and wire material by satisfying constraints imposed by international standards and transformer user specification. The constraints include appropriate limits on efficiency, voltage regulation, temperature rise, no-load current and winding fill factor. The design optimizations seek a constrained minimum mass (or cost) solution by optimally setting the transformer geometry parameters and require magnetic properties. This paper shows the above design problems can be formulated in genetic algorithm(GA) and simulated annealing (SA) format. The importance of the GA and SA format stems for two main features. First it provides efficient and reliable solution for the design optimization problem with several variables. Second, it guaranteed that the obtained solution is global optimum. This paper includes a demonstration of the application of the GP technique to transformer design.Key word—Optimization, Power Transformer, Genetic Algorithm (GA), Simulated Annealing Technique (SA)DOI:

Jafar Ramadhan Mohammed,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 1: February 2012 , pp. 98-105

In a mobile communication systems, the number of observation data (snapshots) used for covariance matrix estimation can be insufficient, which often occurs due to fast dynamically changing environment or signal characteristics are rapidly changing. In these situations, the performance of the standard adaptive algorithms such as LMS are known to degrade substantially. In this paper, we propose the use of a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to perform the adaptation control of the system parameters under dynamically changing environments The GA-based beamformer has nearly optimal interference cancellation under dynamic conditions, and makes the output SINR consistently close to the optimal one regardless of the number of snapshot used. Other advantages of the GA is its simplicity and fast convergence provided that the parameters are appropriately chosen, which makes it a practical algorithm for beamforming in smart antenna. Simulation results validate substantial performance improvements relative to other standard adaptive algorithms. Although, the use of GA is not new in smart antenna technology, the performance evaluation of the genetic optimization under fast dynamically changing environment has not been investigated to the best of my knowledge and it is of great practical significance.DOI:

Shine N Das, Midhun Mathew, Pramod K. Vijayaraghavan,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 2: December 2011 , pp. 187-194

The existence of billions of web data has severely affected the performance and reliability of web search. The presence of near duplicate web pages plays an important role in this performance degradation while integrating data from heterogeneous sources. Web mining faces huge problems due to the existence of such documents. These pages increase the index storage space and thereby increase the serving cost. By introducing efficient methods to detect and remove such documents from the Web not only decreases the computation time but also increases the relevancy of search results. We aim a novel idea for finding near duplicate web pages which can be incorporated in the field of plagiarism detection, spam detection and focused web crawling scenarios. Here we propose an efficient method for finding near duplicates of an input web page, from a huge repository. A TDW matrix based algorithm is proposed with three phases, rendering, filtering and verification, which receives an input web page and a threshold in its first phase, prefix filtering and positional filtering to reduce the size of record set in the second phase and returns an optimal set of near duplicate web pages in the verification phase by using Minimum Weight Overlapping (MWO) method. The experimental results show that our algorithm outperforms in terms of two benchmark measures, precision and recall, and a reduction in the size of competing record set.DOI:

Sunil M. Jaralikar, Mangalpady Aruna,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 1: February 2012 , pp. 17-25

Undertaking regular performance analysis of a power station is very much necessary for its operational optimization. In this regard as a case study a 630 MVA, 400/220 kV power station was identified and analysed to study its performance. The study shows that the installed station (transformer) capacity is very large compared to the load it had to supply, and also it is under loaded and underutilized for the major period of its operation. Due to this the operational efficiency of the station was reduced and also the incoming voltage level was higher than the voltage for which the station was designed. During off peak loading condition, one of the 400 kV incoming lines was being tripped, thus risking the supply reliability. This case study emphasizes and suggests few ways for improving the performance and loading pattern of the power station by optimization of its operational parameters. Keywords: Bus reactor; Energy audit; Energy efficiency; Performance analysis; Station capacity.DOI:

Ouamri Bachir, Ahmed-Foitih Zoubir,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 1: February 2012 , pp. 90-97

The strong dependence of the computed torque control of dynamic model of the robot manipulator makes this one very sensitive to uncertainties of modelling and to the external disturbances. In general, the vector of Coriolis torque, centrifugal and gravity is very complicated, consequently, very difficult to modelled. Fuzzy Logic Controller can very well describe the desired system behavior with simple “if-then” relations owing the designer to derive “if-then” rules manually by trial and error. On the other hand, Neural Networks perform function approximation of a system but cannot interpret the solution obtained neither check if its solution is plausible. The two approaches are complementary. Combining them, Neural Networks will allow learning capability while Fuzzy-Logic will bring knowledge representation (Neuro-Fuzzy). This paper presents the control of puma 600 robot arm using Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) based computed torque controller (type PD). Numerical simulation using the dynamic model of puma 600 robot arm shows the effectiveness of the approach in improving the computed torque method. Comparative evaluation with Fuzzy computed torque (type PD) control is presented to validate the controller design. The results presented emphasize that a satisfactory trajectory tracking precision and stabilility could be achieved using ANFIS controller than Fuzzy controller. Keywords: Fuzzy computed torque control, Robot control, Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS).DOI:

Mohammad Yanuar Hariyawan,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 2: December 2011 , pp. 151-160

Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) has become an attractive technology of choice for Internet backbone service providers.  MPLS features the ability to perform traffic engineering and provides support for Quality of Service traffic provisioning. To deliver reliable service, MPLS requires a set of procedures to provide protection for the traffic carried on Label Switched Paths (LSP). In this case Lable Switched Routers (LSRS) supports recovery mechanism when failure happened in the network.This paper studied about performance from usage of different techniques that can be used to reroute traffic faster then  the current IP rerouting methods in the case of a failure in a network. Local rerouting, fast reroute one to one backs up, Haskin, PSL oriented path protection and 1+1 path protection recovery mechanism was compared by given of aggregate traffic which has self-similarity character. Packet drop, rejection probability, recovery time, service disruption time and pre-reserved resources backup will be made as comparator parameter with various bitrate and different position of link failure. Packet loss, rejection probability, recovery time and service disruption time at five recovery mechanisms influenced by position of link failure to ingress. 1+1 path protection mechanism has least packet drop, but costliest way to do recovery in the case of usage resources, as traffic is sent simultaneously in two paths which disjoint. Fast reroute one to one backup is quickest way to operate protection switching recovery after 1+1 path protection mechanism. Keywords: MPLS, recovery, rerouting, self-similar traffic, protection switchingDOI:

Ashwani Kumar Sharma,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 1: February 2012 , pp. 75-89

Congestion management (CM) is one of the most important challenging tasks of the Independent System Operator (ISO) in the deregulated environment. In this paper, generators’ rescheduling based CM approach to manage transmission line congestion considering loadability limit has been presented for hybrid based electricity market model. The main contribution of the paper is (i) to obtain secure transactions for hybrid market model, (ii) optimal rescheduling of generators with loadability limits taken into account with secure transactions, (iii) and impact of FACTS devices on transmission line congestion management. The ISO ensures secure bilateral transactions in a hybrid market model and CM is managed with minimum preferred schedule to obtain minimum congestion cost. The results have been obtained for IEEE 24 bus test system.  Keywords: Generator re-dispatch, congestion management, pool electricity market, bid function, loadability limit.DOI:

Alexander Setiawan, Djoni Haryadi Setiabudi, Yanuar Simon,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 2: December 2011 , pp. 171-181

AbstractIn conducting research and linguistic analysis, researchers often find a variety of obstacles because of their limitations as human beings. A large number of articles data that must be processed and calculated increase the risk of error in the analysis, either in error in classification or error in the calculation. That’s why an application is made to assist researchers in conducting their research. This research was provided a specific framework to support the needs analysis process. This program is specifically designed to support the entire process of analysis required by using the method of analysis transivity analysis and assessment, which include searching and data processing articles, clauses classification process, and analytical assessment of this clause. The results of this study are to perform data storage process of said search results of an article, save the data analysis process from an article, the classification of phrase in the sentence in the article, and can minimize risk of calculation errors that occur in analysis. Test carried out using aplha reliability coeficient 0,75 (75%). Keywords: Analyze, Linguistic, Application.DOI:

Osama Elsayed Gouda, Adel Abd-eltwab Farag,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 1: February 2012 , pp. 7-16

Single-core underground power cables with two-points bonding induce currents in their metallic sheaths. The sheath induced currents are undesirable and generate power losses and reduce the cable ampacity. This paper has shown that the values of the sheath losses in some cases could be greater than conductor losses, depending on various factors. Such these factors are type of cable layouts, cable parameters, cable spacing, sheath resistance, phase rotation, conductor current and cable armoring. In this paper the above factors have been investigated. The calculations are carried out depending mainly on IEC 60287 by a proposed computer program using MATLAB.Keywords: Single-core cables, two-point bonding method, sheaths losses, flat, trefoil, armoringDOI:

Mehrdad Tarafdar Hagh, Seyyed Mehdi Mahaei, Kazem Zare,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 2: December 2011 , pp. 85-92

In state estimation of power systems, it is possible that measurements include bad data, influencing on state estimations of power system. Several intelligent methods have been proposed to detect bad data which should be trained in various network situations but they are almost impractical because of abound situations of actual network. Some mathematical methods such as Chi-Square Distribution Test, Largest Normalized Residual Test and Hypotheses Testing Identification as the detectors of bad data have been presented, too. Sometimes these mathematical methods are not able to detect bad data. This paper proposes a method which can improve the detection of bad data in mentioned mathematical methods. Case studies have been done with different given errors on measurements of IEEE 14-bus system, and it was shown that this method is effective to improve the bad data detection.DOI: Keywords: Bad Data; Chi-Square Distribution; Largest Normalized Residual; Hypotheses Testing Identification

Tanvir Hussain, Md Mejbaul Haque,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 1: February 2012 , pp. 112-119

In this paper, we have proposed a technique by which customized sound can be generated using 8 bit AVR microcontroller. Any sound file chosen from computer can be integrated in microcontroller programming which is written in C and compiled by AVR libc compiler. An 8 bit DAC connected to PORT A of AVR microcontroller takes data of  sound file as input and gives converted analog sound signal as output. An audio amplifier based on LM386 Op-Amp circuit amplifies the sound signal which is finally connected to 8Ω speaker for audible sound output. This circuit has been simulated using Proteus ISIS 7 Virtual System Modeling (VSM).DOI:

Nordiana Mukahar, Siti Hawa Ruslan,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 1: February 2012 , pp. 106-111

A gain modified CMOS Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) for a 16 bit pipeline Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) is presented. The circuit is designed to be used for a high resolution and low sampling rate ADC. Gain boosting technique is implemented in the design to achieve high DC gain and settling time as required. Post layout simulations for a 5 pF load capacitance shows that OTA achieves a gain bandwidth of 161 MHz at a phase margin 93.14o with 93.27 dB DC gain. The settling time for an OTA is 163 ns for 0.1 % accuracy to achieve final value and consume power about 4.88 mW from 5 V power supply.Keywords: ADC; common mode feedback; CMOS Operational Amplifier; fully differential folded cascadeDOI:

Surinder Singh, Hari Ram, Sandeep Singh Gill,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 2: December 2011 , pp. 140-150

To recover accurate transmitted data at the receiver end, the information regarding channel state derived from channel estimation methods play a very important role in any communication system. In this paper the performance evaluation of different types of QAM and PSK modulations with three different channel estimation methods in OFDM system for wireless communication in frequency domain for slow fading channel is compared. The results must be useful in OFDM based applications like IEEE 802.16(d) and equivalent standards.DOI:

Md. Rafiqul Islam Sheikh, Tamura Junji,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 2: December 2011 , pp. 119-134

Due to random variations of wind speed, the output power and terminal voltage of a fixed speed wind generator fluctuate continuously. These irregularities in power output are affecting both the power quality and reliability. It is reported that STATCOM/SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) system can significantly decrease voltage and output power fluctuations of grid connected fixed speed wind generator. But the main problem in wind generator output power smoothing is the choice of the reference output power, because it corresponds to energy storage capacity. The storage capacity of SMES that is sufficient for the smoothing control but as small as possible is very important, considering cost effectiveness. In this paper, a fuzzy logic controlled STATCOM/SMES system is proposed, in which both SMA (Simple Moving Average) and EMA (Exponential Moving Average) are used to generate output power reference. Real wind speed data are used in the simulation analyses, whichvalidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. Simulation results clearly show that the proposed STATCOM/SMES system can smooth well the wind generator output power and also maintain the terminal voltage at rated level in both cases when SMA or EMA is used to generate output reference power. Finally, it is shown that reference output power generated by EMA provides better performance with reduced SMES storage capacity than that of output power generated by SMA.Keywords: Minimization of fluctuations, fixed speed wind generator, STATCOM/SMES, simple moving average (SMA) and exponential moving average (EMA), and wind farm (WF).DOI:

Mohammad Shaifur Rahman, Md. Mejbaul Haque, Ki-Doo Kim,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 2: December 2011 , pp. 161-170

High power white LEDs are expected to replace the existing lighting technologies in near future which are also suggested for visible light communication (VLC). We proposed an algorithm for high precision indoor positioning using lighting LEDs, VLC and image sensors. In the proposed algorithm, four LEDs transmitted their three-dimensional coordinate information which were received and demodulated by two image sensors near the unknown position. The unknown position was then calculated from the geometrical relations of the LED images created on the image sensors. We described the algorithm in details. Simulation of the proposed algorithm was done and presented in this paper. This technique did not require any angular measurement which was needed in contemporary positioning algorithms using LED and image sensor. Simulation results showed that the proposed system could estimate the unknown position within the accuracy of few centimeters. Positioning accuracy could be increased by using high resolution image sensors or by increasing the separation between the image sensors.DOI:

Samta Gajbhiye, Monisha Sharma, Samir Dashputre,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 2: December 2011 , pp. 195-201

The paper presents an extensive and careful study of elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) and its applications. This paper also discuss the arithmetic involved in elliptic curve  and how these curve operations is crucial in determining the performance of cryptographic systems. It also presents  different forms of elliptic curve in various coordinate system , specifying which is most widely used and why. It also explains how isogenenies between elliptic curve  provides the secure ECC. Exentended form of elliptic curve i.e hyperelliptic curve has been presented here with its pros and cons. Performance of ECC and HEC is also discussed based on scalar multiplication and DLP. Keywords: Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), isogenies, hyperelliptic curve (HEC) , Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP), Integer  Factorization , Binary Field, Prime FieldDOI:

Seyyed Mehdi Mahaei, Mehrdad Tarafdar Hagh, Kazem Zare,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 1: February 2012 , pp. 57-67

In this paper is modeled different types of control devices including various kinds of FACTS devices based on power system states. Also, the impact of each device on the amount of injection active or reactive powers as well as active and reactive power flow will be investigated. Based on the type of these devices which can be in parallel, in series or in series–shunt in power systems, proposed models is considered differently. Accordingly, case studies will be performed for three different types of control devices installed in series, in shunt and in series-shunt fashions. State estimation results based on Weighted Least Square not only confirm the proposed models’ effectiveness in accurately state estimating of the system and measurement values but also shows that the estimated values can be obtained from the states of the control devices.Keywords: State Estimation; FACTS Devises; Measurement Function; WLS EstimatorDOI:

Md. Masud Rana, Md. Rabiul Islam, Md Kamal Hosain,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 1, No 2: December 2011 , pp. 213-219

Multi-conductor transmission line and interconnect carry signals with wide rage of frequencies from sending end to receiving end. The signal in one transmission line may be interupted by the unwanted contributions from the neighboring line conductors. If data speed increases, high frequency effects occur and the signals suffer from difficulties such as ringing, crosstalk, reflections, and ground bounce that seriously hamper the quality of the received signal. In order to estimate the signal quality, signal integrity analysis is needed. In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the sensitivity of the near and far end crosstalk on the parameters such as physical geometry of the conductors, electrical property of the substrate and the rise and fall time of excitation signal. The method of moments (MOM) is used to calculate the line parameters for different geometries. The simulation studies are carried out in TNT. The time domain and frequency domain analyses are performed using transmission line model of PSPICE. Moreover, a model is developed and tested in the laboratory. It is observed that the coupling inductance and capacitance vary with the variation of physical geometry and the substrate parameter.DOI:

Dr. Md. Rafiqul Islam Sheikh, Md. Mejbaul Haque, M.A. Hossain,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 1: February 2012 , pp. 46-56

As wind turbine output is proportional to the cube of wind speed, the wind turbine generator output fluctuates due to wind speed variations. Hence, if the power capacity of wind power generators becomes large, wind power generator output can have an influence on the power system frequency. Therefore, this study investigates the influence of governor control systems of synchronous generators (SGs) for minimizing frequency fluctuations with high wind power penetration level, when a total capacity of SGs is considered as 100 MVA. It is seen that when both SGs operate as governor free (GF) operation, system perform better frequency control. But it can not be maintained to the acceptable level when SGs operate at GF-LFC or LFC-GF operation with wind power capacity about 5% of total capacity. Finally, it is seen that when several interconnected SGs are operated with different control modes, system frequency become more severe for 10% capacity of wind power.DOI:

J. B. Fulzele, Subroto Dutt,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 1: February 2012 , pp. 68-74

A hybrid renewable energy system may be used to reduce dependency on either conventional energy or renewable system. Optimization of hybrid renewable energy systems looks into the process of selecting the best components and its sizing with appropriate operation strategy to provide cheap, efficient, reliable and cost effective alternative energy. In this paper a methodology has been develop for optimum planning of hybrid PV-Wind system with some battergy backup. The local solar radiation, wind data and components database from different manufactures are analyzed and simulated in HOMER to assess the technical and economic viability of the integrated system. Performance of each component will be evaluated and finally sensitivity analysis will be performed to optimize the system at different conditions. Keywords:Optimization, Hybrid system,Renewable system, HOMER, Cost of energy.DOI:

A. Adya Pramudita, Lydia Sari, V. Windha Mahyastuti,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 2: April 2012 , pp. 207-213

A method to increase the received power of an antenna system by combining polarization, space and frequency diversities is investigated in this paper. The antenna system under investigation consisted of an array of 10 microstrip antenna elements. Each antenna element is a microstrip antena with circular polarization. Two array antennas with circularly polarized elements  have been designed for receiving eloctromagnetic energy in 900 MHz and 1800 MHz band. Laboratory measurement has been conducted to study the increase of antenna received power caused by combining space, polarizarion and frequency diversities. Results show that the proposed method is able to increase the received power by 12.9 dB at 900 MHz and by 8.4 dB at 1800 MHz in an indoor environment; and by 15.8 dB at 900 MHz and by 9.5 dB at 1800MHz. This increase is mainly contributed by the use of space diversity, namely the use of array of 10 elements which contributed to increase the received power by 10.3 dB in an indoor environment. The useof circularly-polarized element increased the received power by 2.6 dB. Of the three diversities proposed, frequency diversity was found to have the least significant contribution becase the received power from 1800 MHz band is smaller than the 900 MHz band.DOI:

Satya Narayana, Bonigala Ramesh, Saheb Hussain,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 2: April 2012 , pp. 175-182

The identification and classification of faults is important for safe and optimal operation of power systems. For secure operation of a system a feasible approach is to monitor signals so that accurate and rapid classification of fault is possible for making correct protection control.To identify HVDC faults by using pure frequency or pure time domain based method is difficult. The pure frequency domain based methods are not suitable for time varying transients and the pure time domain based methods are very easily influenced by noise.Wavelet analysis is one of the methods used for providing discriminative features with small dimensions to classify different disturbances in HVDC transmission system. This paper explores the application of wavelet based Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA) for signal decomposition to monitor some faults in HVDC system. The faults in HVDC system can be classified by monitoring the signals both on AC and DC sides of the HVDC system. The fault classifier can be developed from these monitored signals which show promising features to classify different disturbances in the HVDC system.DOI:

E.V.C Sekhara Rao, P.V.N Prasad,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 2: April 2012 , pp. 191-196

This paper discuss about dynamic performance analysis of permanent magnet hybrid stepper motor during single stepping by transfer function model for eight topologies using PDE toolbox of Matlab, for different current densities for two types of core materials.. These results suggest modifications for better performance of the PMH stepper motor for better dynamic response during single stepping.DOI:

Babasaheb G. Patil, Nikhil Niwas Mane, Shaila Subbaraman,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 2: April 2012 , pp. 214-222

An approach of singular value (SVD) of a (mxn) 2-D matrix has beenpopularly used by researchers for representing a 2-D image by a set of less than or equal to n values sequenced in descending order of which a subset of only first few values which are significant is treated as a set of features for that image. These features are further used for image recognition and classification. Though many papers as reviewed from literature have discussed about this implantation using software/MATLAB approach, rarely a paper appears on hardware implementation of SVD algorithm for image processing applications. This paper presents the details of a hardware architecture developed by us to implement SVD algorithm and then presents the results of implementation of this architecture in the Xilinx field programmable gate array Virtex5 to extract the features of an iris image. A comparison between the feature values extracted by MATLAB and those obtained by hardware simulation using Xilinx ISE tool indicates a very good match validating the hardware architecture. A hamming distance classifier using appropriate threshold values stored in ROM is used to classify the iris images.DOI:

Radiah Amin,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 2: April 2012 , pp. 231-238

Intangible Culture Heritage is very important as national treasure for a country since it is a part of identity of the country. Rapid technology changed and globalization is one of the reasons why new generation less interested to involve in culture heritage sector. Without any drastic action to safeguard Intangible Culture Heritage for the country it will cause endanger to disappearance. In this study researcher introduce a model of factors that contributing in archiving Intangible Culture Heritage. By transform from the model to meta model it will be a guidelines, standard and base for developing a repository of Intangible Culture Heritage. The finding for this research is a vital and very fruitful for intangible study and archiving and also as a main contribution for this study.DOI:

Davod Aghlmandi, Karim Faez,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 2: April 2012 , pp. 223-230

Vocal disorders directly arise from the physical shape of the vocal cords. Videostroboscopic imaging provides doctors with valuable information about the physical shape of the vocal cords and about the way these cords move. Segmentation of the glottal space is necessary in order to characterize morphological disorders of vocal folds. One of the main problems with the methods presented is their low level of accuracy. To solve this problem, an automatic method based on Mathematical Morphology edge detection and the Hough transformation is presented in this article to extract the glottal space from the videostroboscopic images presented. Our method compared with the histogram and active contours methods and the findings showed that our proposed method yields better results.DOI:

Priyanka Roy, Abhijit Chakrabarti,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 2: April 2012 , pp. 155-158

This paper proposes a long run marginal cost based formulation for reflecting the usage based pricing of electrical power. The aim of this paper is to develop a novel method that can price the real power on a long term basis in a multi-machine power system. The proposed method has shown that the cost of future investment is governed by the perturbation of generating power.  The economic efficiency of the proposed model is demonstrated in a 203 buses 267 lines 23 machines real power system of eastern part of India where total 23 generators are categorized in 5 types according to their ratings and analyzed the price at their optimal operating condition with 10% loading variation.DOI:

Bellali Badre, A. Hazzab, I. K. Bousserhane, Dimitri lefebvre,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 2: April 2012 , pp. 166-174

This paper presents a new and efficient Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference Systems approach for satellite’s attitude control systems (ACSs) fault diagnosis. The proposed approach formulates the fault modelling problem of system component into an on-line parameters estimation The learning  ability of the adaptive neural fuzzy inference system allow as to decoupling the effect of each fault from the estimation of the others.  Our solution provides a method to detect, isolate, and estimate various faults in system components, using Adaptive Fuzzy Inference Systems Parameter Estimators (ANFISPEs) that are designed and based on parameterizations related to each class of fault. Each ANFISPE estimates the corresponding unknown Fault Parameter (FP) that is further used for fault detection, isolation and identification purposes. Simulation results reveal the effectiveness of the developed FDI scheme of an ACSs actuators of a 3-axis stabilized satellite.DOI:

Md. Masud Rana, Muhammad Abdul Goffar Khan,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 2, No 2: April 2012 , pp. 203-206

In this paper, a dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system with 64 modulated channels 50 GHz spacing covering 25.2-nm bandwidth has been demonstrated. When optical signals are to travel over long distances, it’s be faded and spread out. So, it is necessary to strengthen the signal at intervals. To keep the signal strength at same level in the DWMD system, Er-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) has been used. The EDFA provides a gain across the bandwidth with 10 dB average gain and a gain shape variation peak-to-peak of about 1 dB. OptSim’s physical EDFA model has been used for DWMD systems.DOI:

Nafiseh Bahrami, Ahmad Habibizad Navin, Mina Alavighi, Ali Asghar Pourhaji Kazem,

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol 3, No 1: February 2013 , pp. 64-72

Since the objective of grid is sharing the numerous and heterogeneous resources, resource discovery is a challenging issue. Recently appeared, Ontosum, is a resource discovery method based on semantically linked organizations and a routing algorithm Resource Distance Vector (RDV), has been presented to forward resource discovery queries into the clusters. Although this framework is efficient for large-scale grids and nodes are clustered automatically based on semantic attributes to constitute a semantically linked overlay network, but the dynamic behavior of grid isn’t considered. In this method, deceptive information is stored in RDV tables (RDVT) which cause some problems in routing process. In this paper, a method is proposed to improve the dynamism of RDV routing algorithm, so the consistency with grid environments is increased. The developed algorithm is assessed by investigating the success probability, number of hops and routing time of resource discovery.DOI:



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