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# IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA)

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ISSN:2089-4856/E-ISSN:2722-2586

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), ISSN 2089-4856, e-ISSN 2722-2586 is an open access international peer-reviewed journal which is providing a platform to researchers, scientists, engineers and practitioners/professionals throughout the world to publish the latest creations and achievement, future challenges and exciting applications of manufacture and applications of robots and computer systems for their control and automation, sensory feedback, and information technology to reduce the need for human work. Robots are becoming part of people's everyday social lives and will increasingly become so. In future years, robots may become caretaker assistants for the elderly, or academic tutors for our children, or medical assistants, day care assistants, or psychological counselors. Robots may become our co-workers in factories and offices, or maids in our homes. The IJRA aims to publish most complete and reliable source of information on the discoveries and current developments in the mode of original articles, review articles, case reports and short communications in all areas of the field and making them freely available through online without any restrictions or any other subscriptions to researchers worldwide. This journal is aiming to push the frontier of robotics into a new dimension, in which motion and intelligence play equally important roles. Its scope includes (but not limited) to the following: automation control, automation engineering, autonomous robots, biotechnology and robotics, emergence of the thinking machine, forward kinematics, household robots and automation, inverse kinematics, Jacobian and singularities, methods for teaching robots, nanotechnology and robotics (nanobots), orientation matrices, robot controller, robot structure and workspace, robotic and automation software development, robotic exploration, robotic surgery, robotic surgical procedures, robotic welding, robotics applications, robotics programming, robotics technologies, robots society and ethics, software and hardware designing for robots, spatial transformations, trajectory generation, unmanned (robotic) vehicles, etc. The journal is published by Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES) in collaboration with  Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama (IPMU) and Universitas Ahmad Dahlan (UAD).

# Towards Behavior Control for Evolutionary Robot Based on RL with ENN

Jingan Yang, Yanbin Zhuang, Chunguang Li,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 1, No 1: March 2012 , pp. 31-48

This paper proposes a behavior-switching control strategy of anevolutionary robotics based on Artificial NeuralNetwork (ANN) and Genetic Algorithms (GA). This method is able not only to construct thereinforcement learning models for autonomous robots and evolutionary robot modules thatcontrol behaviors and reinforcement learning environments, and but also to perform thebehavior-switching control and obstacle avoidance of an evolutionary robotics (ER) intime-varying environments with static and moving obstacles by combining ANN and GA.The experimental results on thebasic behaviors and behavior-switching control have demonstrated that ourmethod can perform the decision-making strategy and parameters set opimization ofFNN and GA by learning and can escape successfully from the trap of a localminima and avoid \emph{"motion deadlock" status} of humanoid soccer robotics agents,and reduce the oscillation of the planned trajectory betweenthe multiple obstacles by crossover and mutation. Some results of the proposed algorithmhave been successfully applied to our simulation humanoid robotics soccer team CIT3Dwhich won \emph{the 1st prize} of RoboCup Championship and ChinaOpen2010 (July 2010) and \emph{the $2^{nd}$ place}of the official RoboCup World Championship on 5-11 July, 2011 in Istanbul, Turkey.As compared with the conventional behavior network and the adaptive behavior method,the genetic encoding complexity of our algorithm is simplified, and the networkperformance and the {\em convergence rate $\rho$} have been greatlyimproved.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v1i1.259

# Reduced Search Space Algorithm for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping in Mobile Robots

Hesam Omranpour, Saeed Shiry,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 1, No 1: March 2012 , pp. 49-63

In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for simultaneous localization and mapping in mobile robots which uses evolutionary algorithm and particle swarm optimization. The proposed method is based on both local and global heuristic search methods. In each step of robot movements, the local search is applied in the small search space of odometry errors to improve the map accuracy. A global search method is applied for loop closing. The proposed algorithm detects loops and closes them, detects and solves correspondence and avoids local extremums. With a proper representation of problem parameters in chromosome, the dimensionality of search space is reduced. The proposed algorithm utilizes occupancy grid and does not require land marks which are not available in most natural environments. A new fitness function is proposed that is computationally efficient and eliminates the need for complex statistical calculations as used in current approaches. Results of experiments on real datasets exhibit the superior performance of the proposed method compared to the current methods.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v1i1.274

# Design and Experiments of Low Cost Teleoperation System

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 1, No 1: March 2012 , pp. 1-12

In this work, a teleoperation system consists of two planar SCARA manipulators is developed. The manipulators are constructed using basic low cost aluminum bars as well as cheap electronic circuitry and software. Modeling, system identification, individual control and teleoperation control are proposed. Finally, experiments are also performed to verify the effectiveness of the design.Index Terms—Teleoperation systems, PID control, System identification, position control.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v1i1.272

# Design and Development of Vision Based Blockage Clearance Robot for Sewer Pipes

Krishna Prasad Nesaian, M. Bala Karthikeyan,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 1, No 1: March 2012 , pp. 64-68

Robotic technology is one of the advanced technologies, which is capable of completing tasks at situations where humans are unable to reach, see or survive. The underground sewer pipelines are the major tools for the transportation of effluent water. A lot of troubles caused by blockage in sewer pipe will lead to overflow of effluent water, sanitation problems. So robotic vehicle that is capable of traveling at underneath effluent water determining blockage using ultrasonic sensors and clearing by means of drilling mechanism is done. In addition to that wireless camera is fixed which acts as a robot vision by which we can monitor video and capture images using MATLAB tool. Thus in this project a prototype model of underground sewer pipe blockage clearance robot with drilling type will be developedDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v1i1.192

# Robot Kinematics, using Dual Quaternions

Mahmoud Gouasmi, Mohammed Ouali, Fernini Brahim,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 1, No 1: March 2012 , pp. 13-30

From the point of view of classical mechanics, deriving the equations of motion for systems of coupled rigid bodies is regarded as a straightforward procedure: once a suitable set of generalized coordinates and reference frames have been chosen, what remains is to either apply Lagrange’s equations or Newton and Euler’s equations to obtain the differential equations of motion. As the complexity of multibody system increases, the need for more elegant formulation of the equation of motion becomes an issue of paramount importance. Our primary focus is on the kinematic analysis of rigid bodies and serial manipulators (robotic systems)  using simultaneously, both homogeneous transformations (4x4) matrices and Dual Quaternions, for the sake of results comparisons (cost,complexity,storage capacity etc.) . This paper has been done mainly for educational and peadagogical purposes, hoping that the scientific community will finally adopt and use Dual Quaternions at least when dealing with multibody systems and specially robotics.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v1i1.275

# Design and Analysis of a Multifingered Robot Hand

Pramod Kumar Parida, Bibhuti Bhusan Biswal,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 1, No 2: June 2012 , pp. 69-77

With the advent of new control techniques and development of microactuators, manipulator designers have gained inpetus todevelop manipulators and the related devicesthat is more flexible, responsive, smart and anthropomorphic.Taking cue from the work of a number of researchersover a couple of decades, the present work is a systematic attempt to develop a five fingered anthropomorphic robotic hand with 25 DoFs. The hand closely follows the anatomy of a typical human hand. The paper presents the structure of the proposed hand and its model for kinematic analysis. The kinematic analysis has been carried out using conventional method using MATLab software. The result obtained through the analysis confirmed that the robot hand conforms to the objective.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v1i2.360

# Kinematic Modeling and Simulation of a 2-R Robot by Using Solid Works and Verification by MATLAB/Simulink

Fernini Brahim,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 1, No 2: June 2012 , pp. 78-93

Simulation of robot systems which is getting very popular, especially with the lowering cost of computers, can be used for layout evaluation, feasibility studies, presentations with animation and off-line programming. Object staging modelisation using robots holds, wether for the object or the robot, the following models: The geometric one, the kinematics one and the dynamic one. To do so, the modelisation of a 2-R robot type is being implemented. Comparing between two robot postures with the same trajectory (path) and for the same length of time and establishing a computing code to obtain the kinematic and dynamic parameters are the main tasks. SolidWorks and Matlab/Simulink softwares are used to check the theory and the robot motion simulation. The verification of the obtained results by both softwares allows us to, qualitatively evaluate ,underline the rightness of the chosen model and to get the right conclusions. The results of simulations were discussed. An agreement between the two softwares is certainly Obtained.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v1i2.350

# A Noble Approach of Process Automation in Galvanized Nut, Bolt Manufacturing Industry

Akash Samanta, Arindam Dutta,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 1, No 2: June 2012 , pp. 113-124

Corrosion costs money”, The Columbus battle institute estimates that corrosion costs Americans more than \$ 220 billion annually, about 4.3% of the gross natural product [1].Now a days due to increase of pollution, the rate of corrosion is also increasing day-by-day mainly in India, so, to save the steel structures, galvanizing is the best and the simplest solution. Due to this reason galvanizing industries are increasing day-by-day since mid of 1700s.Galvanizing is a controlled metallurgical combination of zinc and steel that can provide a corrosion resistance in a wide variety of environment. In fact, the galvanized metal corrosion resistance factor can be some 70 to 80 times greater that the base metal material. Keeping in mind the importance of this industry, a noble approach of process automation in galvanized nut-bolt  manufacturing plant is presented here as nuts and bolts are the prime ingredient of any structure. In this paper the main objectives of any industry like survival, profit maximization, profit satisfying and sales growth are fulfilled. Furthermore the environmental aspects i.e. pollution control and energy saving are also considered in this paper. The whole automation process is done using programmable logic controller (PLC) which has number of unique advantages like being faster, reliable, requires less maintenance and reprogrammable. The whole system has been designed and tested using GE, FANUC PLC.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v1i2.346

Shrinivas R. Zanwar, R. D. Kokate,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 1, No 2: June 2012 , pp. 107-112

This article addresses the advanced system which improves agriculture processes like cultivation on ploughed land, based on robotic platform. We have developed a robotic vehicle having four wheels and steered by DC motor. The advanced autonomous system architecture gives us the opportunity to develop a complete new range of agricultural equipment based on small smart machines. The machine will cultivate the farm by considering particular rows and specific column at fixed distance depending on crop. The obstacle detection problem will also be considered, sensed by infrared sensor. The whole algorithm, calculation, processing, monitoring are designed with motors & sensor interfaced with microcontroller. The result obtained through example activation unit is also presented. The dc motor simulation with feedforward and feedback technique shows precise output. With the help of two examples, a DC motor and a magnetic levitation system, the use of MATLAB and Simulink for modeling, analysis and control is designed.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v1i2.382

# GEMMP - A Google Maps Enabled Mobile Mission Planning Tool for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 1, No 2: June 2012 , pp. 94-106

Many applications for mobile robotics involve operations in remote, outdoor environments. In these environments, it can be difﬁcult to plan missions dynamically due to the lack of portability of existing mission planning software. Mobile platforms allow access to the Web from nearly anywhere while other features, like touch interfaces, simplify user interaction, and GPS integration allows developers and users to take advantage to location-based services. In this paper, we describe a prototype AUV mission planner developed on the Android platform, created to aid and enhance the capability of an existing AUV mission planner, VectorMap, developed and maintained by OceanServer Technology, by taking advantage of the capabilities of existing mobile computing technology.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v1i2.351

# Improved Line Tracking System for Autonomous Navigation of High-Speed Vehicle

Yahya Zare Khafri, Ali Jahanian,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 1, No 3: September 2012 , pp. 163-174

Line tracking navigation is one of the most widely techniques used in the robot navigation. In this paper, a customized line tracking system is proposed for autonomous navigation of high speed vehicles. In the presented system, auxiliary information -in addition to the road path- is added to the tracking lines such as locations of turn and intersections in the real roads. Moreover, the geometric position of line sensors is re-designed enables the high rate sensing with higher reliability. Finally, a light-weight navigation algorithm is proposed allow the high-speed movement using a reasonable processing power. This system is implemented on a MIPS-based embedded processor and experimental results with this embedded system show more than 98% accuracy at 200km/h with a 1GHz processor is viable.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v1i3.766

# Plant Watering Autonomous Mobile Robot

Hema Nagaraja, Reema Aswani, Monisha Malik,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 1, No 3: September 2012 , pp. 152-162

Now days, due to busy routine life, people forget to water their plants. In this paper, we present a completely autonomous and a cost-effective system for watering indoor potted plants placed on an even surface. The system comprises of a mobile robot and a temperature-humidity sensing module. The system is fully adaptive to any environment and takes into account the watering needs of the plants using the temperature-humidity sensing module. The paper describes the hardware architecture of the fully automated watering system, which uses wireless communication to communicate between the mobile robot and the sensing module. This gardening robot is completely portable and is equipped with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) module, a microcontroller, an on-board water reservoir and an attached water pump. It is capable of sensing the watering needs of the plants, locating them and finally watering them autonomously without any human intervention. Mobilization of the robot to the potted plant is achieved by using a predefined path. For identification, an RFID tag is attached to each potted plant. The paper also discusses the detailed implementation of the system supported with complete circuitry. Finally, the paper concludes with system performance including the analysis of the water carrying capacity and time requirements to water a set of plants.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v1i3.1305

# Kinematic Analysis of 3-DOF Planer Robot Using Artificial Neural Network

Jolly Atit Shah, S.S. Rattan, Bahadur Chand Nakra,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 1, No 3: September 2012 , pp. 145-151

Automatic control of the robotic manipulator involves study of kinematics and dynamics as a major issue. This paper involves the forward and inverse kinematics of 3-DOF robotic manipulator with revolute joints. In this study the Denavit- Hartenberg (D-H) model is used to model robot links and joints. Also forward and inverse kinematics solution has been achieved using Artificial Neural Networks for 3-DOF robotic manipulator. It shows that by using artificial neural network the solution we get is faster, acceptable and has zero error.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v1i3.511

# Indoor Robot Localisation with Active RFID

Wei Wei, Kevin Curran,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 1, No 3: September 2012 , pp. 137-144

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology of location determination and data capture. An RFID based system relies on the interaction between readers (also known as interrogator) and tags (transponders). Active RFID technology is suitable for tracking costly assets or moving objects such as mobile robots. Once affixed with RFID tags, a robot can be localised. However, there is a tendency for accuracy to vary greatly as well as delay in readings. Those problems may be enlarged in real time applications. This paper provides an overview of implementing RFID in precision tracking of mobile robots.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v1i3.487

# Modelling and Controller Design of Electro-Pneumatic Actuator Based on PWM

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 1, No 3: September 2012 , pp. 125-136

In this paper, a nonlinear model associated to the fast switching on-off solenoid valve and pneumatic cylinder was dynamically presented. Furthermore, an investigation into the electrical, magnetic, mechanical and fluid subsystems are made. Twocommon control policies to track valve position, a Proportional Integrator (PI) based on Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and hysteresis controllers, are investigated. To control cylinder position, a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) on a simulated unit and an experimental setup regulated with AVR microcontroller are carried out. Experimental results show effective validation to the simulation results from PLC. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v1i3.565

# A Novel Randomized Search Technique for Multiple Mobile Robot Paths Planning In Repetitive Dynamic Environment

Vahid Behravesh, Seyyed Mohammad Reza Farshchi,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 1, No 4: December 2012 , pp. 214-222

Presented article is studying the issue of path navigating for numerous robots. Our presented approach is based on both priority and the robust method for path finding in repetitive dynamic. Presented model can be generally implementable and useable: We do not assume any restriction regarding the quantity of levels of freedom for robots, and robots of diverse kinds can be applied at the same time. We proposed a random method and hill-climbing technique in the area based on precedence plans, which is used to determine a solution to a given trajectory planning problem and to make less the extent of total track. Our method plans trajectories for particular robots in the setting-time scope. Therefore, in order to specifying the interval of constant objects similar to other robots and the extent of the tracks which is traversed. For measuring the hazard for robots to conflict with each other it applied a method based on probability of the movements of robots. This algorithm applied to real robots with successful results. The proposed method performed and judged on both real robots and in simulation. We performed sequence of100tests with 8 robots for comparing with coordination method and current performances are effective. However, maximizing the performance is still possible. These performances estimations performed on Windows operating system and 3GHz Intel Pentium IV with and compiles with GCC 3.4. We used our PCGA robot for all experiments.  For a large environment of 19×15m2where we accomplished 40tests, our model is competent to plan high-quality paths in a severely short time (less than a second). Moreover, this article utilized lookup tables to keep expenses the formerly navigated robots made, increasing the number of robots don’t expand computation time.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v1i4.1260

# Control of a stair climbing wheelchair

Nor Maniha Abdul Ghani, M.O. Tokhi, A.N.K Nasir, S. Ahmad,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 1, No 4: December 2012 , pp. 203-213

This paper presents investigations into the control of a stair climbing wheelchair particularly for indoor usage. A virtual wheelchair model is developed using Visual Nastran software and linked with Matlab/Simulink for control purposes. The goals are to have a simple, compact and stable stairs climbing wheelchair in order to complete the ascending and descending tasks. The challenges are to ensure the wheelchair seat always stay at the upright position and to control both the front and rear wheel motors while climbing. PID control is used to provide appropriate torque to both front and rear wheels as well as at to the wheelchair seat during climbing. Results show that the wheelchair movement can be controlled smoothly and the seat maintained at the desired position with the adapted approach.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v1i4.795

# Intelligent Vision System for Door Sensing Mobile Robot

Jharna Majumdar, R Praveen Kumar Jain, Venkatesh G M, Swaroop R,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 1, No 4: December 2012 , pp. 190-202

Wheeled Mobile Robots find numerous applications in the Indoor man made structured environments. In order to operate effectively, the robots must be capable of sensing its surroundings. Computer Vision is one of the prime research areas directed towards achieving these sensing capabilities. In this paper, we present a Door Sensing Mobile Robot capable of navigating in the indoor environment. A robust and inexpensive approach for recognition and classification of the door, based on monocular vision system helps the mobile robot in decision making. To prove the efficacy of the algorithm we have designed and developed a ‘Differentially’ Driven Mobile Robot. A wall following behavior using Ultra Sonic range sensors is employed by the mobile robot for navigation in the corridors.  Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) have been used for the implementation of PD Controller for wall following and PID Controller to control the speed of the Geared DC Motor.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v1i4.1262

# Design Gradient Descent Optimal Sliding Mode Control of Continuum Robots

Farzin Piltan, Shahnaz Tayebi Haghighi,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 1, No 4: December 2012 , pp. 175-189

In this research, a new approach for gradient descent optimal sliding mode controller for continuum robots is proposed. Based on the new dynamic models developed, a novel technique for nonlinear control of continuum manipulators to be employed in various situations has also been proposed and developed. A section of a continuum arm is modeled using lumped model elements (masses, springs and dampers) and control by nonlinear methodology (sliding mode method) and optimization the sliding surface slope by gradient descent method. It is shown that this type of control methodology, although used to a certain model, can be used to conveniently control the dynamics of the arm with suitable tradeoff in accuracy of modeling. This relatively controller is more plausible to implement in an actual real-time when compared to other techniques of nonlinear controller methodology of continuum arms. Principles of sliding mode methodology is based on derive the sliding surface slope and nonlinear dynamic model and applied in the system. Based on the gradient descent optimization method, the sliding surface slope and gain updating factor has been developed in certain and partly uncertain continuum robots. This methodology is represented in certain and uncertain area whose only optimization for certain area and test this optimization for uncertainty. The new techniques proposed and methodologies adopted in this paper supported by MATLAB/SIMULINK results represent a significant contribution to the field of design an optimized nonlinear sliding mode controller for continuum robots.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v1i4.883

# Dynamics and Optimal Feet Force Distributions of a Realistic Four-legged Robot

Saurav Agarwal, Abhijit Mahapatra, Shibendu Shekhar Roy,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 1, No 4: December 2012 , pp. 223-234

This paper presents a detailed dynamic modeling of realistic four-legged robot. The direct and inverse kinematic analysis for each leg has been considered in order to develop an overall kinematic model of the robot, when it follows a straight path. This study also aims to estimate optimal feet force distributions of the said robot, which is necessary for its real-time control. Three different approaches namely, minimization of norm of feet forces (approach 1), minimization of norm of joint torques (approach 2) and minimization of norm of joint power (approach 3) have been developed. Simulation result shows that approach 3 is more energy efficient foot force formulation than other two approaches. Lagrange-Euler formulation has been utilized to determine the joint torques. The developed dynamic models have been examined through computer simulation of continuous gait of the four-legged robot.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v1i4.762

# Smart Telerobotic Surveillance System via Internet with Reduced Time Delay

Ashesh Vasalya, Rohit Agrawal,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 2, No 1: March 2013 , pp. 11-16

This work provides an imperial solution to the problems faced by man while enduring hazardous tasks like handling and disposal of nuclear wastes, monitoring nuclear power plants, mining operations etc .which have to be aborted if expertise group running it is unavailable or on a run. This paper presents a distributed platform that allows the special group of user to control a gadget (possibly a robot) through internet as a medium. An advanced version of this technology is capable of transmitting graphic images and other surrounding information as required, via internet back to the user to facilitate the effective monitoring of the existent situation using appropriate software tools. The project uses the SRV-1 Mobile Surveillance Robot which is a fully integrated system standard designed and other related technology for surveillance purposes. It is driven via web browser using JAVA based control applications with live video feeds. Specialised user group will be given separate account from where they can control and monitor the system even when they are not present at the site. End user will be connected to the gadget (robot) through a central server which acts as a single channel for both sending and receiving information. But the subject of remote control over the internet has some possible anomalies namely network freezing, delay between host and recipient, congested network and many others. This system enables asynchronous object passing so that network bandwidth is used effectively and such parameters as the network condition and server states have less effect on the system. To resolve this issue, a fuzzy logic controller is used to control the robot’s motion along a predefined path with the necessary manipulation of the normal course. The robot was first modelled in Matlab Simulink and the fuzzy logic rules were optimized for the best results possible. In accordance with the fuzzy rules developed the fuzzy interference system generates the output map for operating IR ranger sensor data. This system was developed to actuate as an auxiliary intelligence in the teleoperation system developed for the mobile robot, and the Grid Scanning algorithm was induced to enhance accuracy to cope up with the unexpected delays from the internet data communication. The logic in the internet based controlling of robotics can be expanded to a very large field, like speed control, trajectory control, obstacle avoidance and so on.

# Design and Implementation of Video Shot Detection on Field Programmable Gate Arrays

Jharna Majumdar, Darshan K M, Abhijith Vijayendra,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 2, No 1: March 2013 , pp. 17-25

Video has become an interactive medium of communication in everyday life. The sheer volume of video makes it extremely difficult to browse through and find the required data. Hence extraction of key frames from the video which represents the abstract of the entire video becomes necessary. The aim of the video shot detection is to find the position of the shot boundaries, so that key frames can be selected from each shot for subsequent processing such as video summarization, indexing etc. For most of the surveillance applications like video summery, face recognition etc., the hardware (real time) implementation of these algorithms becomes necessary. Here in this paper we present the architecture for simultaneous accessing of consecutive frames, which are then used for the implementation of various Video Shot Detection algorithms. We also present the real time implementation of three video shot detection algorithms using the above mentioned architecture on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays).

# Electromyographic Grasp Recognition for a Five Fingered Robotic Hand

Nayan M. Kakoty, Mantoo Kaiborta, Shyamanta M. Hazarika,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 2, No 1: March 2013 , pp. 1-10

This paper presents classification of grasp types based on surface electromyographic signals. Classification is through radial basis function kernel support vector machine using sum of wavelet decomposition coefficients of the EMG signals. In a study involving six subjects, we achieved an average recognition rate of 86%. The electromyographic grasp recognition together with a 8-bit microcontroller has been employed to control a fivefingered robotic hand to emulate six grasp types used during 70% daily living activities.

# Design of Micro Robot for Minimally Invasive Surgery

Deiva Ganesh A,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 2, No 1: March 2013 , pp. 35-44

Micro robots for medical applications need to be compatible with human body, remotely controllable, smooth in movement, less painful to the patients and capable of performing the designated functions. In this paper, state of the art in the design, fabrication and control of micro robots are presented. First the benefits of micro robots in medical applications are listed out. Second, the predominantly used micro robot designs are discussed. Third, the various fabrication process used in micro robot construction are presented. Fourth, the different approaches used for its operation and control in micro robot technology are narrated. Next based on the review we have designed a swimming micro robot driven by external magnetic fields for minimally invasive surgery. The advantage of EMA is that it can generate a wireless driving force. Then, the locomotive mechanism of the micro robot using EMA is presented. Using the EMA system setup various experiments have been conducted. Finally, the performance of the swimming micro robot is evaluated.

# Flexible Morphogenesis based Formation Control for Multi-Robot Systems

Jan Carlo Barca, Eugene Eu-Juin Lee, Ahmet Sekercioglu,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 2, No 1: March 2013 , pp. 26-34

Inspired by how biological cells communicate with each other at a cell-to-cell level; morphogenesis emerged to be an effective way for local communication between homogenous robots in multi-robot systems. In this paper, we present the first steps towards a scalable morphogenesis style formation control technique, which address the drawbacks associated with current morphogenesis type formation control techniques, including their inability to distribute robots evenly across target shapes. A series of experiments, which demonstrate that the proposed technique enables groups of non-holonomic ground moving robots to generate formations in less than 9 seconds with three robots and less than 22 seconds with five robots, is also presented. These experiments furthermore reveal that the proposed technique enables groups of robots to generate formations without significantly increasing the total travel distance when faced with obstacles. This work is an important contribution to multi-robot control theory as history has shown that the success of groups often depends on efficient and robust formation control.

# Investigation In Two Wheels Mobile Robot Movement: Stability and Motion Paths

Abdulrahman A.A. Emhemed,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 2, No 2: June 2013 , pp. 45-49

This paper deals with the problem of dynamic modelling of inspection robot two wheels. Fuzzy controller based on robotics techniques for optimize of an inspection stability. The target is to enhancement of robot direction and avoids the obstacles. To find collision free area, distance-sensors such as ultra-sonic sensors and laser scanners or vision systems are usually employed. The distance-sensors offer only distance information between mobile robots and obstacles. Also the target are shown can be reached by different directions. The fuzzy logic controller is effect to avoid the abstacles and get ideal direction to “the target box”.

# UAV Controller Based on Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System and PID

Ali Moltajaei Farid,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 2, No 2: June 2013 , pp. 73-82

ANFIS is combining a neural network with a fuzzy system results in a hybrid neuro-fuzzy system, capable of reasoning and learning in an uncertain and imprecise environment. In this paper, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is employed to control an unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV).  First, autopilots structure is defined, and then ANFIS controller is applied, to control UAVs lateral position. The results of ANFIS and PID lateral controllers are compared, where it shows the two controllers have similar results. ANFIS controller is capable to adaptation in nonlinear conditions, while PID has to be tuned to preserves proper control in some conditions. The simulation results generated by Matlab using Aerosim Aeronautical Simulation Block Set, which provides a complete set of tools for development of six degree-of-freedom. Nonlinear Aerosonde unmanned aerial vehicle model with ANFIS controller is simulated to verify the capability of the system. Moreover, the results are validated by FlightGear flight simulator.

# Depth Level Control System using Peripheral Interface Controller for Underwater Vehicle

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 2, No 2: June 2013 , pp. 69-72

This research explained on a design and development of an Automatic Depth Control System for underwater vehicle. Definition of underwater vehicle is a robotic sub-sea that is a part of the emerging field of autonomous and unmanned vehicles. This project shows the implementation’s development of an Automatic Depth Control System on a test prototyping vehicle especially involved small-scale and low cost sub-sea robots. The Automatic Depth Control System assembled with mechanical system and module of electronic system for development of a controller.

# Modeling and Control of 5DOF Robot Arm Using Fuzzy Logic Supervisory Control

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 2, No 2: June 2013 , pp. 56-68

Modeling and control of 5 degree of freedom (DOF) robot arm is the subject of this article. The modeling problem is necessary before applying control techniques to guarantee the execution of any task according to a desired input with minimum error. Deriving both forward and inverse kinematics is an important step in robot modeling based on the Denavit Hartenberg (DH) representation. Proportional integral derivative (PID) controller is used as a reference benchmark to compare its results with fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and fuzzy supervisory controller (FSC) results. FLC is applied as a second controller because of the nonlinearity in the robot manipulators. We compare the result of the PID controller and FLC results in terms of time response specifications. FSC is a hybrid between the previous two controllers. The FSC is used for tuning PID gains since PID alone performs not satisfactory in nonlinear systems. Hence, comparison of tuning of PID parameters is utilized using classical method and FSC method. Based on simulation results, FLC gives better results than classical PID controller in terms of time response and FSC is better than classical methods such as Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) in tuning PID parameters in terms of time response.

# Parallel Graph Transformation based on Merged Approach

Asmaa Aouat, El Abbassia Deba,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 2, No 2: June 2013 , pp. 50-55

Graph transformation is one of the key concepts in graph grammar. In order to accelerate the graph transformation, the concept of parallel graph transformation has been proposed by different tools such as AGG tool. The theory of parallel graph transformation used by AGG just allows clarifying the concepts of conflict and dependency between the transformation rules. This work proposes an approach of parallel graph transformations which enables dependent transformation rules to be executed in parallel.

# Behavior-Based Approach for the Detection of Land Mines Utilizing off the Shelf Low Cost Autonomous Robot

Abdel Ilah Nour Alshbatat,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 2, No 3: September 2013 , pp. 83-92

Several countries all of the world are affected by landmines. The presence of mines represents a major threat to lives and causes economic problems. Currently, detecting and clearing mines demand specific expertise with special equipment. In this context, this paper offers the design and development of an intelligent controller which can control and enable the robot to detect mines by means of sensors and of processing the fused information to guide soldiers when passing landmines.  This is accomplished by broken down the overall system into two subsystems: sensor technologies and robotic device. Sensors devices include infrared distance sensor, metal detector, ultrasonic range finder, accelerometer sensor, while the structure of the robot in our case consists mainly  of a commercial  off-the-shelf  parts which  are  available  at  low  costs. The proposed controller is mainly based on creating fuzzy rules that reflect the behaviors of soldier beings in controlling a robot in a well known landmine. Simulation and experimental results are presented her to prove the efficiency of the proposed approach. The results show that the system is able to detect landmines and guide soldiers while crossing mines area.

# Multi-robot system using low-cost infrared sensors

Anubhav Kakkar, Shivam Chandra, Deepanshu Sood, Ritu Tiwari, Anupam Shukla,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 2, No 3: September 2013 , pp. 117-128

This paper presents a proposed set of the novel technique, methods, and algorithm for simultaneous path planning, area exploration, area retrieval, obstacle avoidance, object detection, and object retrieval   autonomously by a multi-robot system. The proposed methods and algorithms are built considering the use of low cost infrared sensors with the ultimate function of efficiently exploring the given unknown area and simultaneously identifying desired objects by analyzing the physical characteristics of several of the objects that come across during exploration. In this paper, we have explained the scenario by building a coordinative multi-robot system consisting of two autonomously operated robots equipped with low-cost and low-range infrared sensors to perform the assigned task by analyzing some of the sudden changes in their environment. Along with identifying and retrieving the desired object, the proposed methodology also provide an inclusive analysis of the area being explored. The novelties presented in the paper may significantly provide a cost-effective solution to the problem of area exploration and finding a known object in an unknown environment by demonstrating an innovative approach of using the infrared sensors instead of high cost long range sensors and cameras. Additionally, the methodology provides a speedy and uncomplicated method of traversing a complicated arena while performing all the necessary and inter-related tasks of avoiding the obstacles, analyzing the area as well as objects, and reconstructing the area using all these information collected and interpreted for an unknown environment. The methods and algorithms proposed are simulated over a complex arena to depict the operations and manually tested over a physical environment which provided 78% correct results with respect to various complex parameters set randomly.

# End-Effector Position Analysis Using Forward Kinematics For 5 Dof Pravak Robot Arm

Jolly Atit Shah, S.S. Rattan, B.C. Nakra,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 2, No 3: September 2013 , pp. 112-116

Automatic control of the robotic manipulator involves study of kinematics and dynamics as a major issue. This paper involves the kinematic analysis of a Pravak Robot arm which is used for doing successful robotic manipulation task in its workspace. The Pravak Robot Arm is a 5-DOF robot having all the joints revolute. The kinematics problem is defined as the transformation from the Cartesian space to the joint space and vice versa. In this study the Denavit- Hartenberg (D-H) model is used to model robot links and joints. Pravak Robot Arm is a simple and safe robotic system designed for laboratory training and research applications. This robot allows to gain theoretical and practical experience in robotics, automation and control systems. The MATLAB R2007 is used to analyse end effectors position for a set of joint parameter.

# Modeling and Simulation of Wave Gait of a Hexapod Walking Robot: A CAD/CAE Approach

Abhijit Mahapatra, Shibendu Shekhar Roy, Dilip Kumar Pratihar,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 2, No 3: September 2013 , pp. 104-111

In the present paper, an attempt has been made to carry out dynamic analysis of a hexapod robot using the concept of multibody dynamics. A CAD (Computer Aided Design) model of a realistic hexapod robot has been made for dynamic simulation of its locomotion using ADAMS (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems) multibody dynamics solver. The kinematic model of each leg of three degrees of freedom has been designed using CATIA (Computer Aided Three Dimensional Interactive Application) and SimDesigner package in order to develop an overall kinematic model of the robot, when it follows a straight path. Joint Torque variation as well as the variation of the aggregate center of mass of the robot was analyzed for the wave tetrapod gait. The simulation results provide the basis for developing the control algorithm as well as an intelligent decision making for the robot while in motion.

# Analysis of Inverse Kinamtics of an Anthropomorphic Robotic hand

Pramod Kumar Parida, Bibhuti Bhusan Biswal,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 2, No 3: September 2013 , pp. 93-103

In this paper, a new method for solving the inverse kinematics of the fingers of an anthropomorphic hand is proposed. Solution of inverse kinematic equations is a complex problem, the complexity comes from the nonlinearity of joint space and Cartesian space mapping and having multiple solutions.This is a typical problem in robotics that needs to be solved to control the fingers of an anthropomorphic robotic hand to perform tasks it is designated to do. With more complex structures operating in a 3-dimensional space deducing a mathematical soluation for the inverse kinematics may prove challenging. In this paper, using the ability of ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) to learn from training data, it is possible to create ANFIS network, an implementation of a representative fuzzy inference system using ANFIS structure, with limited mathematical representation of the system. The main advantages of this method with respect to the other methods are implementation is easy, very fast and shorter computation time and better response with acceptable error.

# Occupancy Grid Mapping Based on DSmT for Dynamic Environment Perception

Junjing Zhou, Duan Jianmin, Yang Guangzu,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 2, No 4: December 2013 , pp. 129-139

Occupancy grid mapping is an important approach for intelligent vehicle environment perception. In this paper, an occupancy grid mapping approach in Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT) framework for the purpose of dynamic environment perception is proposed. To avoid the transformation of the local map from polar to Catersian coordinate, a different inverse sensor model in Cartesian coordinate for laser scanner was proposed. Two different combination rules in DSmT framework, Dempster’s rule of combination and PCR2, are implemented independently for global map update and mobile object detection. The performance of the two combination rules were compared by ways of simulation and experiment. According to the comparisons we find that both of the combination rules are capable of detecting mobile objects. And the former effectively filtered out the noise and make the detection robust, but the latter didn’t, suggesting that the former is more suitable for occupancy grid mapping. Static and mobile objects are extracted from the occupancy grid map using digital image processing technology.

# Design Sliding Mode Controller of with Parallel Fuzzy Inference System Compensator to Control of Robot Manipulator

Farzin Piltan, Ali Hosainpour, Sara Emamzadeh, Iman Nazari, Mina Mirzaie,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 2, No 4: December 2013 , pp. 149-162

Sliding mode controller (SMC) is a significant nonlinear controller under condition of partly uncertain dynamic parameters of system. This controller is used to control of highly nonlinear systems especially for robot manipulators, because this controller is a robust and stable. Conversely, pure sliding mode controller is used in many applications; it has two important drawbacks namely; chattering phenomenon, and nonlinear equivalent dynamic formulation in uncertain dynamic parameter. The nonlinear equivalent dynamic formulation problem and chattering phenomenon in uncertain system can be solved by using artificial intelligence theorem. However fuzzy logic controller is used to control complicated nonlinear dynamic systems, but it cannot guarantee stability and robustness.  In this research parallel fuzzy logic theory is used to compensate the system dynamic uncertainty.

# Automated Sequential Pushing of Micro Objects By Using Adaptive Controller

Mohsen Shahini, William W. Melek, John T.W. Yeow,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 2, No 4: December 2013 , pp. 163-173

This paper focuses on precision automated pushing of multiple micro objects. An adaptive control system is proposed to accurately push and position the micro objects on a substrate. Each micro object exhibits different characteristics in terms of the surface micro forces governing the manipulation process. The controller is designed to compensate for the effect of the micro forces whose aggregated magnitude varies during the process. An experimental setup is designed to validate the performance of the proposed controller. The results of the experiments confirm that the proposed adaptive controller is capable of learning to adjust its parameters effectively, when the surface micro forces change under varying surface and ambient conditions.

Kuldeep S. Rawat, G.H. Massiha,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 2, No 4: December 2013 , pp. 140-148

A novel senior project in designing and implementing a wheeled platform-based experimental mobile robot is discussed. This mobile robot design project was used as a platform to learn sensor interfacing, microcontroller programming, motor control, and electronic circuit design and troubleshooting. A specially designed proto board was used so that students could experiment with various types of sensors and supporting electronic circuitry. The modules implemented in this project are, servo motor control, infrared (IR)-based obstacle detection and avoidance, temperature sensing, and IR wireless communication. An 8-bit Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC) microcontroller, operating at 20MHz, was used as a programmable controller to monitor external environment through sensors and make appropriate decisions. PIC microcontroller was programmed using PICBasic PRO, a BASIC like high-level language. The implementation was divided into separate experiments, through which the students progressively completed the mobile robot. This progressive experimentation helped students develop their knowledge of interfacing, microcontroller programming, electronic control, circuit design, and troubleshooting in an incremental manner. The robot design experiments, sensor interfacing, electronic control, supporting circuitry, problems faced and troubleshooting during implementation are discussed in the paper.

# Intelligent Mobile Olfaction of Swarm Robots

Siti Nurmaini, Bambang Tutuko, Aulia Rahman Thoharsin,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 2, No 4: December 2013 , pp. 189-198

This work presents intelligent mobile olfaction design and experimental results of intelligent swarm robots to detection a gas/odour source in an indoor environment by using multi agent based on hybrid algorithm. We examine the problem for deciding when, how and where the gas/odour sensor should be activated. Simple form of cooperation between Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic and Particle Swarm Optimization (IT2FL-PSO) algorithm is implemented in the olfaction strategies. The real experiments performed on smaller five mobile robots equipped with dynamic gas/odour sensor TGS2600 and three infra-red sensors. The results show that single robot-based olfaction system with 5 behaviors capable for searching source of a simulated chemical leak in unknown environment and flooking behavior can be done by 3 robots to find the source of gas/odour.

# Adaptive Fuzzy and Robust H∞ Compensation Control for Uncertain Robot

Yuan Chen, Guangying Ma, Shuxia Lin, Jun Gao,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 2, No 4: December 2013 , pp. 174-188

In this paper, two types of robust adaptive compensation control schemes for the trajectory tracking control of robot manipulator with uncertain dynamics are proposed. The proposed controllers incorporate the computed-torque control scheme as a nominal portion of the controller; an adaptive fuzzy control algorithm to approximate the structured uncertainties; and a nonlinear H∞ tracking control model as a feedback portion to eliminate the effects of the unstructured uncertainties and approximation errors. The validity of the robust adaptive compensation control schemes is investigated by numerical simulations of a two-link rotary robot manipulator

# Global Tracking Control of Quadrotor VTOL Aircraft in Three-Dimensional Space

Duc Khac Do,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 3, No 1: March 2014 , pp. 13-29

This paper presents a method to design controllers that force a quadrotor vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft to globally asymptotically track a reference trajectory in three-dimensional space. Motivated by the vehicle's steering practice, the roll and pitch angles are considered as immediate controls plus the total thrust force  provided by the aircraft's four rotors to control the position and yaw angle of the aircraft. The control design is based on the newly introduced one-step ahead backstepping, the standard backstepping and Lyapunov's direct methods. A combination of Euler angles and unit-quaternion for the attitude representation of the aircraft is used to obtain global tracking control results. The paper also includes a design of observers that exponentially estimate the aircraft's linear velocity vector and disturbances. Simulations illustrate the results.

# Bilateral Teleoperation of Wheeled Mobile Robots Working in Common Workspace

Lorinc Marton Marton, Zoltan Szanto, Piroska Haller, Hunor Sandor, Tamas Szabo, Tamas Vajda,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 3, No 1: March 2014 , pp. 62-74

This paper proposes a bilateral control framework for mobile robots which share the same workspace. The robots are teleoperated by independent users. Accordingly, for each teleoperated robot the other robots represent moving obstacles or static obstacles with a-priori unknown positions. For such teleoperation systems a velocity generator algorithm is proposed to obtain the linear and angular velocity commands of the mobile robots. A procedure is also given to calculate the haptic force corresponding to each mobile robot. To guarantee the stability of the teleoperation in the presence of large communication delays, a supervisor control algorithm is proposed which constantly monitors the stability of the teleoperation system. Experimental measurements are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed bilateral teleoperation strategy.

# RSMDP-based Robust Q-learning for Optimal Path Planning in a Dynamic Environment

Yunfei Zhang, Clarence W. de Silva,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 3, No 1: March 2014 , pp. 1-12

This paper presents arobust Q-learning method for path planningin a dynamic environment. The method consists of three steps: first, a regime-switching Markov decision process (RSMDP) is formed to present the dynamic environment; second a probabilistic roadmap (PRM) is constructed, integrated with the RSMDP and stored as a graph whose nodes correspond to a collision-free world state for the robot; and third, an onlineQ-learning method with dynamic stepsize, which facilitates robust convergence of the Q-value iteration, is integrated with the PRM to determine an optimal path for reaching the goal. In this manner, the robot is able to use past experience for improving its performance in avoiding not only static obstacles but also moving obstacles, without knowing the nature of the obstacle motion. The use ofregime switching in the avoidance of obstacles with unknown motion is particularly innovative.  The developed approach is applied to a homecare robot in computer simulation. The results show that the online path planner with Q-learning is able torapidly and successfully converge to the correct path.

# A Neural Network Approach for Inverse Kinematic of a SCARA Manipulator

Panchanand Jha, B. B. Biswal,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 3, No 1: March 2014 , pp. 52-61

Inverse kinematic is one of the most interesting problems of industrial robot. The inverse kinematics problem in robotics is about the determination of joint angles for a desired Cartesian position of the end effector. It comprises of the computation need to find the joint angles for a given Cartesian position and orientation of the end effectors to control a robot arm. There is no unique solution for the inverse kinematics thus necessitating application of appropriate predictive models from the soft computing domain. Artificial neural network is one such technique which can be gainfully used to yield the acceptable results. This paper proposes a structured artificial neural network (ANN) model to find the inverse kinematics solution of a 4-dof SCARA manipulator. The ANN model used is a multi-layered perceptron neural network (MLPNN), wherein gradient descent type of learning rules is applied. An attempt has been made to find the best ANN configuration for the problem. It is found that multi-layered perceptron neural network gives minimum mean square error.

# A Low-Cost Smart Glove for Hand Functions Evaluation

Izzeldin Ibrahim Mohamed Abdelazizi,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 3, No 1: March 2014 , pp. 39-51

This paper focuses on the development of a reliable, low cost, average size, light weight, simple, rugged, and compact design five fingers real time smart glove and a measurement hand gripper that emulate the human hand functions that can be used as a prototype model for hand rehabilitation systems for patients suffering from paralyze or contracture. The hand gripper device will move based on a human operator’s finger movement using the smart glove. Index, Middle, ring, and little fingers of the hand have a three degree of freedom, while the thumb finger has a two degree of freedom. All fingers are equipped with sensors for a smooth precise movement on a small scale with a perfect incision and without any vibration. This gripper is ideal for light objects. All the fingers have high speed motion and can be controlled individually and this gives the gripper ability to grasp complex shaped objects this work contains two PIC 18F452 microcontrollers for the instrumentation, communication and controlling applications. A series of flex sensors are built-in a master glove to get readings from the movement of human fingers. Microcontrollers will further use this information to control multiple servos that controls the movement of the slave hand.

# Dedicated Filter for Robust Occupancy Grid Mapping

KS Nagla, Moin Uddin, Dilbag Singh,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 4, No 1: March 2015 , pp. 82-92

Sensor based perception of the environment is an emerging area of the mobile robot research where sensors play a pivotal role. For autonomous mobile robots, the fundamental requirement is the convergent of the range information in to high level internal representation. Internal representation in the form of occupancy grid is commonly used in autonomous mobile robots due to its various advantages. There are several sensors such as vision sensor, laser rage finder, and ultrasonic and infrared sensors etc. play roles in mapping. However the sensor information failure, sensor inaccuracies, noise, and slow response are the major causes of an error in the mapping. To improve the reliability of the mobile robot mapping multisensory data fusion is considered as an optimal solution. This paper presents a novel architecture of sensor fusion frame work in which a dedicated filter (DF) is proposed to increase the robustness of the occupancy grid for indoor environment. The technique has been experimentally verified for different indoor test environments. The proposed configuration shows improvement in the occupancy grid with the implementation of dedicated filters.

# Self Assistive Technology for Disabled People – Voice Controlled Wheel Chair and Home Automation System

R. Puviarasi, Mritha Ramalingam, Elanchezhian Chinnavan,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 3, No 1: March 2014 , pp. 30-38

This paper describes the design of an innovative and low cost self-assistive technology that is used to facilitate the control of a wheelchair and home appliances by using advanced voice commands of the disabled people. This proposed system will provide an alternative to the physically challenged people with quadriplegics who is permanently unable to move their limbs (but who is able to speak and hear) and elderly people in controlling the motion of the wheelchair and home appliances using their voices to lead an independent, confident and enjoyable life. The performance of this microcontroller based and voice integrated design is evaluated in terms of accuracy and velocity in various environments. The results show that it could be part of an assistive technology for the disabled persons without any third person’s assistance.

# Design of Piano -playing Robotic Hand

Lin Jen-Chang, Hsin-Cheng Li, Kuo-Cheng Huang, Shu-Wei Lin,

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 3, No 2: June 2014 , pp. 118-130

Unlike the market slowdown of industrial robots, service & entertainment robots have been highly regarded by most robotics reseach and market research agencies. In this study we developed a music playing robot (which can also work as a service robot) for public performance. The research is mainly focused on the mechanical and electrical control of piano-playing robot, the exploration of correlations among music theory, rhythm and piano keys, and eventually the research on playing skill of keyboard instrument. The piano-playing robot is capable of control linear motor, servo-motor and pneumatic devices in accordance with the notes and rhythm in order to drive the mechanical structure to proper positions for pressing the keys and generating music. The devices used for this robot are mainly crucial components produced by HIWIN Technology Corp. The design of robotic hand is based on the direction of anthropomorphic hand such that five fingers will be used for playing piano. The finger actuations include actions of finger rotation, finger pressing, and finger lifting; time required for these 3 stages must meet the requirement of rhythm. The purpose of entertainment robot can be achieved by playing electric piano with robotic hand, and we hope this research can contribute to the development of domestic entertainment music playing robots.

# Optimizing Hexapod Robot Reconfiguration using Hexa-Quad Transformation

IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Vol 3, No 2: June 2014 , pp. 139-150

This paper presents a leg reconfigurable technique to optimize the hexapod robot reconfiguration flexiblity. A hexapod-to-quadruped (Hexa-Quad) transformation technique is proposed to optimize hexapod legs on certain situation that need some legs to be disabled as a leg to do other tasks and operations. This proposed method used the factor of center of body (CoB) stability in the support polygon and its body shape. The reinitialized leg’s shoulder method is proposed to ensure the support polygon is balanced and confirmed the CoM nearly or at the center. This method is modeled and simulated in a real-time based model of hexapod robot with 4-DOF/leg control architecture. The model is verified in numerical model and presented using separated 3D simulators.